Obligation of Fasting
The rule for Fasting is similar to Namaz and is Farz-e-Ain and those who reject to believe it as obligatory (Farz) is a Kafir and those who miss it without genuine reason is a big sinner and will receive punishment in hell. Those children who have the strength should be made to keep a fast and strong boys and girls should be forced to keep a fast (a few slaps not with a stick) [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. Fasting for the whole month of Ramadan is obligatory.
Description of fasting and age for beginning
According to Shariat, the definition of a fast is make the intention to fast for the sake of Allah from the break of dawn to sunset and to refrain from eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse. For fasting, a woman has to be clean from menstruation or bleeding after childbirth meaning, the fast will not count for a woman on her period or still bleeding after childbirth. It is obligatory for a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth to fast after her state of bleeding is over and she is clean from it, meaning to make Qaza for the missed Roza. Fasting is not obligatory for children or for an insane person as long as they remain insane for the whole month of Ramadan, and if they gain sanity any period in the middle and it is still within the allocated time for intention, then they must make the intention and fast from that day onwards and the Qaza is necessary for the whole month, for example, if a person was insane from the first of Ramadan and gained sanity on the twenty ninth day from the break of dawn until midday then they will have to perform Qaza for whole month's fasts [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Allocated time for the intention of Fasting
The meaning of the intention
Fasting on doubtful days
To make a promise to fast
THE SIGHTING OF THE MOON
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that start fasting by seeing the moon and finish fasting ( celebrate Eid) by seeing the moon, and if there is cloud then finish Shabaan by completing thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also reported that do not start fasting unless you see the moon and do not stop fasting until you see the moon and if there is cloud and you cannot see the moon then complete the thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim].
Which months is it Wajib to see the moon ?
Proof of moon when skies are not clear
Definition of a pious person
The definition of a pious person in this text is a person who refrains from large sins and does not make a habit of committing small sins and is a person who does not perform acts which are against the respect of society such as eating whilst walking in the town.
Definition of a person following Shariat
A person who by looking at them follow the Shariat but you are unaware of his hidden activities [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Rule: Whoever sees the moon and is a pious person then it is Wajib for them to give oath that night. Rule: If the moon is seen in the village by a person and there is no Islamic judge or ruler then the people of the village should be gathered and the oath should be given and if the person giving oath is a pious person then it is necessary for the village people to fast the next day.
Rule: When the sky is not clear then the proof for Eid has to be given by a Muslim, sane, adult, pious and a follower of the Shariat and there has to be either two men or one man and two women and only then the oath will be accepted [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
Proof of moon when skies are clear
Giving an oath when seeing the moon
When giving oath it is necessary to say "I bear witness" and without these words the oath cannot be accepted. However, due to' bad skies and clouds for the oath of the moon for Ramadan if only "I have seen with my eyes the moon for this Ramadan today or I saw it last night' is sufficient.
ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST
Actions that break the fast but only Qaza is necessary
Actions that break the fast and Kaffara is also necessary
If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary. The Kaffara (compensation) is either to free one slave and if this is not possible then keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if this is also not possible then feed fully sixty beggars twice in a day. If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day's fast is missed then you must start the sixty again the previous ones will not count. If someone had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the sixtieth due to illness etc. then they must start again the previous fifty nine are wasted. However, if a woman starts her period in between then she must miss them and continue the fasts once she becomes clean and the previous fasts before the period started will count and when completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Alamgiri]. When breaking the fast and for Kaffara to become necessary there are a few conditions that have to be fulfilled and only then the Kaffara become necessary.
Conditions where Kaffara become necessary
1. A fast is kept in the month of Ramadan with the intention of keeping a fast of Ramadan.
2. The person keeping the fast is a resident and not a traveller.
3. The person is an adult and is sane (if a child or madman breaks the fast then Kaffara is not necessary).
4. The intention for the fast of Ramadan was done at night (if the intention for the fast was made in the day before midday and then broken then only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara).
5. After breaking the fast an act occurred which gives reason to miss a fast which you had no control over such as a woman started her period or such an illness occurred where it is allowed to miss a fast then the Kaffara will not be necessary. If however, after breaking the fast a person became a Ma'zoor (had a problem) which was within their control such as a person injured themselves and therefore became Ma'zoor or became a traveller then the Kaffara will not be cancelled as these things are within their control and Kaffara becomes necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
Acts that do not break the fast
Acts that make the fast Makrooh
Definition of tasting
Tasting something is not what is known as today where to taste something a few bites are taken or a few sips are taken, never mind tasting this will break the fast and if the conditions of Kaffara apply then Kaffara will become necessary. Tasting is to put something on the tongue and the taste is identified and then the food is spat out and none of it goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if something goes down the throat then the fast will break. Rule: If an item is purchased and it is necessary to taste it otherwise you would suffer a loss then you can taste it and the fast will not become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
SEHRI AND IFTAAR(OPENING AND CLOSING THE FAST)
The virtue for performing Sehri
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated "eat for Sehri as there is a lot of blessings for this. The difference between our fasts and the fasts of the other book followers is the bite of sehri[Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi,Nisaa'i etc.]. Allah and His angels send blessings to those who eat at Sehri [Tibrani]. The whole of Sehri is complete blessing and should not be missed and if possible drink at least one gulp of water because Allah and His angels send blessings upon those who perform sehri" [Imam Ahmad]. The Holy Prophet has stated the Allah has said that out of my servants I love those more who rush their Iftari and delay their Sehri [Ahmad, Tirmizi etc.]. It is also reported that Allah chooses those who hurry their Iftari and delay their Sehri [Tibrani]. Rule: To eat Sehri and to delay it is Sunnat, but to delay it so much that their is doubt that the dawn will break then this is Makrooh [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: To hurry the Iftar is Sunnat but it must only be done when you are satisfied that the sun has set, and until you are not completely satisfied you should not start Iftari even if the Mo'azzin has called the Azaan. On days where it is cloudy the Iftar should not be hurried [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
What should Iftar be started with ?
Situations Where Missing The Fast Is Allowed
When Nafl fasts can be broken
VIRTUES FOR SOME NAFL FASTS
Meaning fasting on the tenth of Mohharram and it is better to fast on the ninth of Mohharram. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam kept the Ashura fast himself and instructed others to keep it and also stated that after Ramadan the best fast is of Ashura [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmizi] and he has also stated that the Ashura fast erodes the past one year and the coming one year's sins [Muslim, Abu Da'ud].
Six fasts of Shawwal
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who have kept the fasts of Ramadan and then kept six fasts of Shawwal, then they are like those who have always kept a fast. He has also stated that if you fast after Eid for six days then you have fasted for the whole year [Muslim, Abu Da'ud Tirmizi, Nisaai, Ibne-Maja etc.].
Fast of Shabaan and the virtue for the 15th of Shabaan
The Holy Prophet Salallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that when the fifteenth night of Shabaan arrives then on that night stand (meaning perform Nafl Namaz) and fast during the day, because Allah Ta'ala after sunset pays special attention to the world and says is there anyone wanting forgiveness whom I will forgive, is there anyone looking for wealth whom I will- give wealth to, is there anyone who is stuck in difficulty whom I will release ? Is there anyone like this, is there anyone like this ? and He states this until the sunrise of Fajr [Ibne Maja]. He has also stated that on the night of the fifteenth Allah pays attention to all His creation and forgives all except for the infidel and those who break friendship because of a worldly cause [Tibrani, Ibne Huban].
Fasts of Ayyam Baiz
Meaning the fasts of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of every month. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that fasting for three. days every month is like fasting all the time [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also stated that if possible keep three fasts every month as every fast erodes ten sins and clears you of sins like water cleans clothes [Tibrani].
Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that the actions of each person is presented to Allah on Mondays and Thursdays and I would prefer that my actions are presented when I am fasting. He has also stated that Allah forgives everyone except two people who have had a fight and are not speaking to each other, then Allah tells His angels to leave them until they make up [Tirmizi, Ibne Maja].
Fasting on Wednesdays and Thursdays
The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who fast on Wednesdays and Thursdays, then there freedom from Hell has been written down and those who fast on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays then Allah Ta'ala makes a house for them in Jannat where the inside can be seen from the outside and the outside can be seen from the inside. Rule: To specifically keep a fast only on Fridays is Makrooh, therefore, you should keep a fast before or after, as to keep a Nafl or Sunnat fast on it's own is Makrooh.
AI'TEKAAF - STAYING IN MASJID
Ai'tekaaf is to stay with the intention of Ai'tekaaf for the sake of Allah in Masjid. There are three types of Ai'takaaf, Wajib, Sunnat-e-Maukida and Mustahhab.
This is when a promise is made and fulfilled. For example, you make the intention that if my such and such thing is done then I will stay in Masjid for one day or two days. Once the action is completed it is necessary to perform Ai'tekaaf and with this Ai'tekaaf fasting is a condition and without fasting the Ai'tekaaf is not correct.
This is performed in the last third of Ramadan, meaning the last ten days. i.e. from sunset of the twentieth of Ramadan you entered in the Masjid with the intention of Ai'tekaaf and did not come out until the thirtieth sunset or if the moon is seen on the twenty-ninth sunset. If the intention of Ai'tekaaf is made after sunset on the twentieth then the Sunnat Maukida will not be counted. This Ai'tekaaf is Sunnat-e-Kifaya meaning if one person within the community performs it then all will not be held responsible and if no-one performs it then all will. be held responsible. Fasting is also a condition for this Ai'tekaaf, but the Ramadan fasts are sufficient [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hindiya].
Except for the Ai'tekaaf Wajib and the Ai'tekaaf Sunnat, any other Ai'tekaaf is Mustahhab. Fasting is not a condition for Ai'tekaaf Mustahhab and it can be done for a little while. Whenever you go to Masjid, make the intention for this Ai'tekaaf even if you are going for a short while and when you come out the Ai'tekaaf will finish. For the intention, just the thought that I am performing Ai'tekaaf Mustahhab for Allah is sufficient [Alarngiri, Bahar etc.].
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Friday, July 29, 2016
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