Sunday, July 24, 2016
Chapter 9 Istinja - Cleansing One’s Self After Answering The Call Of Nature
Chapter 9 Istinja - Cleansing One’s Self
After Answering The Call Of Nature
Bahar E Shariat – Vol 2 – Purification – Taharat
Allah Almighty says: Fiihi rijaaluny-yuhibbuuna 'any-yatatah-haruu. WAllaahu yuhib-bul- mutah-hariin. ‘In this Mosque (Masjid Al Quba) there are those who are fond of remaining pure, and Allah loves those who are pure.’ [Surah 9, Verse 108]
Hadith 1: It is reported in Sunan Ibn Majah on the authority of Abu Ayub, Jaabir and Anas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with them) that when this verse was revealed, RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) said, ‘O assembly of Ansaar! Allah has praised you with regards to your purification, so tell me about this purification of yours.’ They said, ‘We perform Wudu (ritual ablution) for Namaaz and we perform Ghusl (ritual purification bath) from Janaabat and we perform Istinja with water.’ He said, ‘Then it is this, so make this necessary (i.e. a habitual practice).’
Hadith 2: Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah report on the authority of Zaid bin Arqam (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)! said, ‘The toilets are where the Jins and shaitaans are present, so when anyone enters into a toilet, he should read: ‘A-‘uuzu BIllaahi minal khubsi wal- khabaa-‘isi
Hadith 3: In the Sahihain, this Dua has been mentioned as follows: ‘Allaahumma ‘innii ’a-‘uuzubika minal khubsi wal- khabaa-‘isi
Hadith 4: It is mentioned in the narration of Tirmizi from Ameer ul Momineen Ali (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that the veil between the eyes of the Jin and the private ornaments of a human is to proclaim ‘BisMIllaah’ when entering the toilet.
Hadith 5: Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Daarimi report from Umm ul Momineen Siddiqa (May Allah Almighty be pleased with her) that when RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) would emerge from the toilet, he would say: GufraanaKa
Hadith 6: It is reported in Ibn Majah from Anas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that when he would emerge from the toilet, he would say: ْ’Al-hamdu-LIllaahil-lazii ‘azhaba ‘annil- ‘azaa wa ‘aa-faanii
Hadith 7: It is in Hisn Haseen that he used to say: ْ ’Al-hamdu-LIllaahil-lazii ‘akhraja mim-batnii maa yazurrunii wabqaa fiihi yanfa-‘unii
Hadith 8: It has been mentioned in numerous books from various Sahaba-e-Kiraam (May Allah Almighty be pleased with them) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) said, ‘When answering the call of nature, neither face the direction of the Qibla nor allow the Qibla to be at your back.’ He also disallowed us from holding the private part with the right hand and cleaning the private parts with the right hand.
Hadith 9: It is reported in Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Nasa’i from Anas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) would remove his ring when entering the toilet, as his blessed name was engraved on it.
Hadith 10: Abu Dawud and Tirmizi report from Anas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that when he would intend to answer the call of nature, he would not raise his clothing until he was close to the ground.
Hadith 11: Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Jaabir (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that when RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) would go out to answer the call of nature, he would go so far away that none would be able to see him.
Hadith 12: Tirmizi and Nasa’i have reported from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ؓ◌ that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) said, ‘Do not use dung and bones to clean your private parts as they are the foods of your brothers the Jins.’ It is mentioned in one narration of Abu Dawud that he also cautioned us against the use of coal.
Hadith 13: Abu Dawud, Tirmizi and Nasa’i have reported from Abdullah ibn Maghfal (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) said, ‘One should not urinate in a bathroom, thereafter bathing or performing Wudu in it, because most evil distractions are caused by this.’
Hadith 14: Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have reported from Abdullah bin Sarjas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) disallowed us from urinating in a hole.
Hadith 15: Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah reported on the authority of Mu’az (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) said, ‘Abstain from the 3 things which are the cause of being cursed; urinating on a quayside, urinating on the road (publicly) and urinating under the shade of a tree.’
Hadith 16: Imam Ahmed, Tirmizi and Nasa’i report from Umm ul Momineen Siddiqa (May Allah Almighty be pleased with her) wherein she says, ‘If any person tells you that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) passed urine whilst standing then do not regard him as being truthful. RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) never passed urine except whilst sitting.’
Hadith 17: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah report from Abu Sa’eed Khudri (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) said, ‘Allah becomes displeased with two people who go out to answer the call of nature and they uncover their private parts and (sit there) talking to one another.’
Hadith 18: It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim from Abdullah ibn Ab’bas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) passed by two graves and said, ‘Both these persons are being punished and not for a serious (which could not be avoided) reason. One of them never used to protect himself from the droplets of urine and the other was involved in tale-bearing.’ RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) then took a fresh date branch and broke it into two pieces and planted a piece on each grave. The Sahaba (May Allah Almighty be pleased with them) said, ‘Ya RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)! Why did (Huzoor) do this?’ He said, ‘In hope that as long as they do not become dry, there punishment will be lessened.’
Laws of Jurisprudence Regarding Istinja
Law: When going to urinate or pass stool it is Mustahab to recite this Dua outside the toilet (i.e. before entering the toilet): BisMIllaahi ‘Allaahumma ‘innii ’a-‘uuzubika minal khubsi wal- khabaa-‘isi Enter with the left foot first and when coming out of the toilet, come out with the right foot and after coming out, recite: GufraanaKa ’Al-hamdu-LIllaahil-lazii ‘azhaba ‘annii maa yu’-zinii wa ‘amsaka ‘alayya maa yan-fa’-nii
Law: When urinating or passing stool or when cleansing yourself thereafter, do not direct your face or back towards the Qibla and this command is general whether you are inside a building or in an open field. If you have directed your face or back towards the Qibla by error then on remembering immediately change your direction. In this there is hope of attaining forgiveness for this immediately.
Law: It is Makruh for a person who has taken a child to the toilet to have him face the direction of the Qibla. The one responsible for taking the child to the toilet is charged with the sin for this.
Law: When urinating or passing stool one should not direct ones face or back towards the sun or the moon. Similarly, one should not urinate in the direction where the wind is blowing.
Law: To urinate or pass stool on the edge of a well, pond or spring or in water even if it is flowing water; on a quayside; under a fruit tree, in an orchard which has fruits, in the shade where people usually sit; beside the Musjid or the Eid Gaah; in a cemetery; on a road or in a place where cattle are kept is Makruh. Similarly, it is Makruh to urinate in a place where Wudu and Ghusl are performed.
Law: To sit on a low place and allow the strain of urine to flow towards a high place is disallowed.
Law: To urinate on hard ground from which the drops of urine splash up towards you is disallowed. One should grade such a place and soften it or dig a pit and urinate therein.
Law: To urinate whilst standing whilst naked and whilst lying down is Makruh. It is also disallowed to go to urinate or pass stool without covering the head or to take with you an item on which a Dua or the Name of Allah and His Beloved Rasool (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) or the name of any pious personality is written. Similarly, it is Makruh to talk whilst in the toilet.
Law: One should not remove the clothing from the body until such time that one is close to sitting and one should not expose the body more than required. Thereafter, one should sit with the legs well spread apart, putting weight on the left leg. At this time one should not ponder in regards to any Deeni issue as this is a means of deprivation. One should also not reply to a sneezing person, to Salaam and to Azaan audibly; when sneezing do not say Alhumdulillah with the tongue (i.e. audibly). It should be said in the heart. One should also not look towards the private parts unnecessarily. One should also not look towards the impurity that has been excreted from the body. One should not sit too long in the toilet as there is a risk of haemorrhoids and piles in doing so. One should neither spit into the urine nor should one blow the nose or clear the throat without reason, or look around unnecessarily, or touch the body without reason or look towards the sky. One should rather lower the head with modesty. When one has completed answering the call of nature, a male should rub the penis from the base towards the head, so that those drops of urine that are held back may come out. Thereafter, one should cleanse oneself using a Dhela (clod) and stand up. He should cover his body before standing up straight. When the drops have stopped, he should move away to some other place and then sit down to perform purification. In doing so, he should first wash both hands thrice each.
When entering the purification area, he should recite: BisMIllaahil-‘Aziim wa bi-hamdiHii wal-hamduLIllaahi ‘alaa Diinil-‘Islaami ‘Allaahum-maj-‘alnii minat-tawwabiina waj-‘alnii minal mutatah-hiriina l-laziina laa khawfun ‘alayhim wa laa hum yah-zanuun.
He should then pour water with the right hand and clean the area with the left hand. He should hold the jug that is being used to pour water at a height when pouring, so that drops of water do not splash onto you. He must first wash the front private part and thereafter he should wash the rear private part (anus).
When performing purification, put pressure on ones breath pushing downwards and keep a clod and then wash thoroughly, so that afterwards there is no odour left on the hand. Thereafter use a pure (Paak) piece of cloth to dry the area. If one does not have a cloth, he should use the hand to wipe the area a few times until there is no real moistness remaining. If one is overwhelmed by ‘waswasa’ (shaitaani distraction) then sprinkle some water on the gusset. Then emerge from this area and recite:
‘Al-hamduLIllaahil-lazii ja-‘alal maaa-‘a tahuuranw-wal- ‘Islaama Nuuranw-wa Qaa-‘idanw-wa Daliilan ‘ilAllaahi wa ‘ilaa Jannaatin-Na-‘iimi ‘Allaahuma hassin farjii wa tah-hir qalbii wa mah-his zunuubii
Law: If one passes any impurity from either the front or rear private part, it is Sunnat to clean oneself using a clod. If one only used water to perform the purification then this too is permissible, but it is Mustahab to make Tahaarat with water after using the clod.
Law: If any other impurity comes out of the front or rear private parts, such as blood or pus etc. or if impurity comes onto that area due to excretion then too if one uses a clod to perform purification, it is valid as long as it did not spread out of that area. However, it is Mustahab to still wash using water.
Law: The usage of a prescribed number of stones is not Sunnat. It all depends on how many are sufficient to attain purification. If the use of just one clod/cleansing stone allows one to become cleansed, the Sunnat has been fulfilled. If one took 3 clods and one was still not able to become clean then the Sunnat has not been fulfilled. However, it is Sunnat to use an odd number of cleansing stones and at least 3 should be used. If using 1 or 2 allowed one to be cleansed then one should complete the counting of 3. If one used 4 to cleanse oneself then one should use 1 more, so that it will become an odd number.
Law: Purification with a clod will only be valid if the area around the opening of the private part is not messed more than the area of one dirham. If it becomes messed more than a dirham then to wash is Fard. However, it is still Sunnat to use the clod.
Law: Stones, pebbles and torn (old) fabric also fall within the category of a clod. To cleanse oneself with any of these is also permissible without any objection. One may also use a wall to dry (i.e. stone from a wall) on condition that it is not the property of someone else. If it is the property of another person or it is ‘Waqf’ then in this case, to make use of it for Istinja is Makruh. However, if one does use it, the purification will be regarded as valid. One can dry off Istinja from the wall of the building which he is renting.
Law: To use a cleansing stone from the wall of a stranger is not permissible even if the house is being rented by him.
Law: It is Makruh to make Istinja (cleanse one’s self) with bones, food, dung, baked bricks, pottery, glass, coal, hay for animals and any such thing which has some value to it even if it is one or two cents.
Law: To make Istinja using paper is not allowed even if nothing is written on it or even if it has the name of an unbeliever such as Abu Jahl written on it.
Law: It is Makruh to use the right hand to perform Istinja. If a person’s left hand is paralysed (or he is not able to use it due to some injury etc) then he may use the right hand.
Law: It is Makruh to touch the private parts with the right hand or to hold the cleaning stone in the right hand when passing it over this area.
Law: It is Makruh to re-use the cleaning stone that has already been used once for the purpose of Istinja. If the opposite side of it is clean then that side may be used.
Law: The Mustahab manner of using the clod after passing stool is as follows for males: During summer, use the first cleaning stone, wiping from the front to the back and the second from the back to the front and then the third from the front going towards the back. During winter, the first clod should be used to wipe from the back to the front, the second from the front to the back and the third from the back to the front.
Law: Females should always (i.e. during any season) use the method that the males use in summer.
Law: It is Mustahab to keep the clean clods on ones right and to keep them to ones left after using them, in a manner whereby the area which is soiled with impurity should be kept facing the back.
Law: After passing urine, if one has a doubt that some drops are still remaining and it will be released then in this case it is Waajib (compulsory) for him to perform ‘Istibra’ (i.e. after passing urine to do something which will cause the drops that are held back to drop off). Istibra can be performed by walking, striking the feet on the ground, by applying pressure by keeping the right leg on the left or the left leg on the right, by coming down from a high place, climbing onto a high place from a low place, by coughing or by lying on the left side. One should perform Istibra until such time that the heart is content. Some Ulama have mentioned that one should walk 40 paces but the correct view is that it depends on whatever makes the heart content and sure. This ruling of Istibra is only for males. Females should wait a short while after finishing and then perform purification.
Law: The Mustahab method of performing Istinja with water after pasting stool is as follows: One should sit with both legs well spread out, pouring water slowly and using the stomach of the fingers to wash. The tips of the fingers should not touch. One should first raise his middle finger over the rest when commencing the Istinja then the finger which is next to it and then the little finger should be raised. One should wash thoroughly. One should not use more than 3 fingers to wash. One should wash slowly so that all the greasiness goes away.
Law: Purification (Tahaarat) will also be valid if one washes using the palm of the hand.
Law: A female should wash herself using only her palm and she should sit with her legs more spread out than a male.
Law: The hands will become purified after Tahaarat but to still wash the hands thereafter and to do so using sand is Mustahab. Note: Nowadays soap etc. is used to wash the hand. This is permissible on condition that the soap does not have any impure and Haraam ingredient in it.
Law: During winter, one should make a greater effort and wash more intensely compared to in summer and if one uses hot water to perform the purification in winter, then one should be as intense as one is in summer. There is more thawaab (reward) in performing purification with cold water than with hot water and using hot water for this person is not without the risk of illness.
Law: When fasting one should not sit with the legs spread out too wide and one should also not wash too intensely.
Law: If a man’s hand is disabled then his wife may assist him in Istinja and if the wife’s hand is disabled then the husband may assist her in Istinja. If a man does not have a wife or if lady does not have a husband; then in this case, any other relative such as ones daughter, son, brother or sister are not allowed to make the Istinja for them. In such a case it is excused.
Law: It is Makruh to cleanse one’s self during Istinja by using Zamzam Shareef and if one did not use the clod prior to this then it is impermissible.
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