Friday, July 22, 2016

Chapter 8 Najaasat Impurities (Bahar E Shariat – Vol 2 – Purification – Taharat)

Chapter 8 Najaasat Impurities
Bahar E Shariat – Vol 2 – Purification – Taharat

Hadith 1: It is in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Asma’ bint Abu Bakr (May Allah Almighty be pleased with her) that a lady said, ‘Ya RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)! When our clothing is soiled by some blood of Haidh, what should we do?’ He  said, ‘When blood of Haidh soils the clothes of any of you, first scrape it off, then wash it with water and thereafter read Namaaz in it.’ 

Hadith 2: It is reported in Sahihain that Umm ul Momineen Siddiqa (May Allah Almighty be pleased with her) says, ‘I used to wash off any semen from the clothing of RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)!  and he  would then go out for Namaaz and the signs of it being washed would be evident.’ 

Hadith 3: It is in Sahih Muslim that she (May Allah Almighty be pleased with her) says, ‘I used to rub out (i.e. wash out) the semen from the clothing of RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)!  and RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)!  would thereafter perform Namaaz in them.’

Hadith 4: It is in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abdullah ibn Ab’bas (May Allah Almighty be pleased with him) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)!  said, ‘When skin (animal hide) has been cooked (boiled) it becomes Paak (pure).’ 

Hadith 5: Imam Maalik reports from Umm ul Momineen Sayyidah Siddiqa (May Allah Almighty be pleased with her) that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam)  commanded that when the hide of the dead animals are cooked (boiled) they should be used. 

Hadith 6: Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i have reported that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) forbade the use of the skins of beasts of prey. 

Hadith 7: It has been mentioned in another narration that RasoolUllaah (SallAllaahu alaihi wa aalihii wasallam) forbade us from wearing and sitting on them

Laws of Jurisprudence Regarding Impurities 

Impurity (Najaasat) is of two types. The one is that concerning which the ruling is absolutely severe. This type of impurity is called ‘Ghaleeza’ (i.e. major impurity). The second type is that regarding which the ruling is not as severe. This is called ‘Khafeefa’ (i.e. minor impurity). 

Law: The ruling in regards to Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza is that if the clothing or body is polluted by it and this pollution is more than one dirham, then to clean it off is Fard. If one performs Namaaz in this condition without cleaning it off the Namaaz will not be valid at all. If one intentionally performed Namaaz in this condition it is regarded a sinful act and if one did this with the intention of vilification and contempt then it is kufr. If the impurity is equivalent to the size of a dirham, then to clean it is Waajib (compulsory) and it is Makruh-e-Tahreemi to read Namaaz without cleaning it off. In other words, it is Waajib (compulsory) to repeat such a Namaaz. If one read Namaaz in this condition intentionally then he is regarded as being sinful as well. If the impurity is less than the size of a dirham then it is Sunnat to cleanse it, meaning that the Namaaz will still be regarded valid even if it was not cleaned but it is Khilaaf-eSunnat, i.e. contrary to the Sunnat. It is better to repeat that Namaaz. 

Law: If the impurity is thick in nature, such as faeces, horse and donkey dung and cow dung etc. then the ruling regarded it being equivalent, or more or less than a dirham actually means that it should be equivalent, or more, or less than a dirham in weight. Here, the weight of a dirham in Shariat is 4 and half mashas (This is approximately 4.7 grams. Some say it is equal to approximately 4.25 grams. The measure of 3 Masha, 1 and 1/5 ratti is approximate 3.144 grams) and in the case of Zakaat the weight of a dirham is counted as 3 Masha and 1 and 1/5 ratti. If the impurity is thin, such as in the case of the urine of humans or alcohol then its comparison to a dirham is based on its length and breadth. The Shariat has stipulated its quantity and measure to be that which is equivalent to the depth of the palm of the hand. The manner of deducing this, is to spread open the palm, keeping it nice and flat then slowly pour onto the palm the maximum amount of water that can remain on it. The size of the dirham will thus be regarded based on the extent of the water on the palm and here (in India) the size of a dirham is approximately the size of an Indian rupee.

Law: If impure oil fell onto the clothing and the area it soiled was not equivalent to the size of a dirham but thereafter it spread and covered the area equivalent to the size of a dirham, then in this regard there is a vast difference of opinion amongst the Ulama but the superior view is that it is Waajib to purify (clean) the clothing.

Law: The ruling in regards to Najaasat-e-Khafeefa is that if it has polluted less than quarter of the portion of the clothing or part of the body, then it is excused (pardoned) and Namaaz in this condition will be valid. If the entire one quarter of that portion of the garment or part of the body is polluted by it then without washing it clean the Namaaz will not be valid.

Note: An example of this is that it has polluted the skirt (i.e. lower portion) of a garment then it should be less than a quarter of the skirt. If it has polluted the sleeve then it should be less than quarter of the sleeve and similarly if it has polluted the hand then it should be less than quarter of the hand for it to be excused.

 Law: The different laws which have been stipulated in regards to Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza and Najaasat-e-Khafeefa are only applicable when they pollute the body or clothing. If they fall into (i.e. pollute) anything which is fluid like, such as water or vinegar, then all of it will become Na-Paak (contaminated and impure) be it Ghaleeza or Khafeefa even if just a single drop falls into it, unless that fluid like substance does not fall within the category of being regarded as a Dah-Dardah.

Law: Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza is that which comes out of the body of a human and necessitates Wudu or Ghusl, such as; faeces, urine, flowing blood, pus, mouthful of vomit, the blood from Haidh (menstruation), Nifaas (postnatal bleeding) or Istihaaza (irregular vaginal bleeding), Mani (semen), Mazee (pre-ejaculation fluid also known as prosthetic fluid, or pre-seminal fluid) and Wadi (urinary fluid).

Law: As long as the blood on the body of a Shaheed Faqih (i.e. one who is regarded as a Shaheed [martyr] by the Shariah) does not separate from his body it is regarded as being pure.

Law: The water (fluid) which comes out of an infected eye is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza. Similarly, the fluid which is discharged from the breast or naval due to pain (or infection) is regarded as Najaasate-Ghaleeza.

Law: If phlegm is discharged from the nose or the mouth, it is not regarded as being impure even if it came from the stomach or even if it is due to an illness.

Law: The urine of milk drinking child be it a male or female is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza. There is a common theory amongst the laymen that the urine of milk drinking children is Paak (pure). This is completely incorrect.

Law: If a milk drinking baby (infant) vomits milk, it will be regarded as Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza if it is a mouthful of vomit.

Law: The flowing blood of every animal which lives on land, the flesh of the carrion (dead animal) and its fat, Haraam quadruped animals such as the dog, lion, fox, cat, rat, donkey, mule and elephant; the faeces of a swine and its urine; the dung of a horse; the droppings of every Halaal quadruped animal such as the dung of the buffalo, the droppings of goats and camels; the droppings of birds which do not fly at a height, such as chickens and ducks, be they big or small; every type of alcohol and that which causes intoxication, toddy drink, date liquor; the urine and stool of a snake and the flesh of those wild snakes and frogs which have flowing blood in them even if they have been made Zibah are regarded as Ghaleeza. The same applies to their skin even if it has been boiled (i.e. tanned) and the flesh, bones and hair of the swine even if it has been made Zibah. All that which have been mentioned above are categorised as Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza.

Note: If that animal which has flowing blood dies without being made Zibah according Shariah it is regarded as carrion even if it was made Zibah, i.e. slaughtered, such as in the case of the Zabiha of a Majoosi, i.e. fire worshipper, idol worshipper or murtad (apostate) even if he sacrificed an animal that is Halaal for consumption, such as a goat etc. the meat and skin etc. of such an animal has become impure. If a person slaughters a Haraam animal using the Shariah method of Zibah then its meat has become Paak (pure) even though it is Haraam to eat. This ruling excludes a swine, as it is Najis ul Ain, i.e. intrinsically impure. It can never become pure in any way.

Law: The blood of a lizard or chameleon is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza.

Law: If the syrup (sap) from grapes falls onto the clothes then even if many days pass the clothing is still pure.

Law: The discharge (fluid) from the trunk of an elephant and the saliva (dribble) of a lion, dog, cheetah and other quadruped beasts of prey is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza.

Law: The urine of animals whose flesh is Halaal (such as cow, ox, buffalo, goats/sheep and camels etc.), the urine of horses and the droppings of those birds whose flesh is Haraam be they predatory birds or not (such as crows, eagles, falcons, hawks and female hawks) is regarded as Najaasat-e-Khafeefa.

Law: The droppings and urine of a bat are both regarded as being pure.

Law: The droppings of high flying Halaal birds such as pigeons, starlings, wild-ducks, geese etc. are regarded as being pure.

Law: The ruling in regards to the cud (Cud is the portion of food that returns from the ruminant’s stomach, into the mouth to be chewed for the second time. A ruminant is an animal that digests plants, grass etc. by initially softening it in the animals first stomach then regurgitating the semi-digested mass known as cud and then chewing it again) of every quadruped animal is the same as the ruling in regards to its faeces.

Law: The ruling in regards to the bile of every animal is the same as the ruling in regards to its urine. The bile of Haraam animals is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza and the bile of Halaal animals is Najaasat-eKhafeefa.

Law: If Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza mixes with Najaasat-e-Khafeefa then all of it is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza.

Law: The blood of fish, other aquatic creatures, bed-bugs and mosquitoes, the perspiration, the saliva of donkeys and mules is regarded as being pure.

Law: If the very light spray (drops) of urine such as the size of the tip of a needle get onto the body or clothing then the body and the clothing is still regarded as being Paak (pure).

Law: If the clothing on which such a light spray of urine (as mentioned above) touches any water then even that water will not be regarded as being Na-Paak (impure).

Law: That blood which has not oozed (flowed) out of a wound is regarded as being pure. 

 Law: The blood which remains in the meat, spleen or liver is regarded as being pure but if these things are soaked in flowing blood then it is regarded as being Na-Paak (impure). They will not be deemed as being Paak (pure) until they have been washed.

Law: If a person read Namaaz whilst carrying a stillborn child in his arms then the Namaaz will be invalid even if the child was given Ghusl. However, if a person carried a child who was born alive and then died even without giving the child Ghusl in his arms and read Namaaz then the Namaaz will still be invalid. If one carried the child in his arms and read Namaaz in this condition, after giving the child Ghusl then the Namaaz will be valid but to do this is contrary to that which is Mustahab (desirable). These rules apply when it is a Muslim’s child. If it is the dead child of an unbeliever then the Namaaz will not be valid under any condition; i.e. whether the baby was given Ghusl (a bath) or not.

Law: If one performed Namaaz having a bottle in ones pocket etc. which contains urine, blood or alcohol then in this case the Namaaz will not be valid. If there is an egg in ones pocket and its yolk has turned into blood then in this case the Namaaz will be regarded as valid. Law: If one unrolled a woollen garment (i.e. its seams were opened) and a dried up rat was found inside then if it had a hole in it (i.e. if the garment had a hole) then one must repeat the Namaaz of 3 days and 3 nights (if Namaaz was read in it for many days). If there was no hole in it then one must repeat all the Namaaz which one read in this garment. 

Law: If there is Najaasat-e-Ghaleeza on different portions of a garment or different parts of the body and it is not equivalent to a dirham on any one place but if it is gathered, it will be equivalent to a dirham then in this case the Najaasat will be regarded as being equivalent to a dirham and if it is more then in the case of it being more then in Najaasat-e-Khafeefa as well. The ruling will be given in regards to all of it being put together, i.e. the total amount of Najaasat will be counted.

Law: The milk of Haraam animals is regarded as Najis (impure). However, the milk of a female horse is regarded as being pure but to consume it is not permissible.

Law: If rat droppings become mixed and ground in wheat or if it fell into oil then the oil and flour is regarded as being pure. However, if there is any alteration in its taste then it is regarded as being Najis (impure). If it becomes mixed in roti (bread) then the parts and pieces around it should be removed and there is no harm in the remainder.

Law: The droppings and the fluid of the silkworm is regarded as being pure.

Law: If pure (clean) clothing was wrapped in impure clothing or if impure clothing was wrapped in pure clothing and the impure clothing causes the pure clothing to become wet (damp), then in this case the pure clothing will not be regarded as being impure, on condition that the colour or the smell of the impurity is not visible on the pure clothing; otherwise it will be regarded as impure even by merely becoming damp. However, if it becomes wet it will be regarded as being impure and this is in the case where the impure clothing is soaking with water; if the wetness of urine of alcohol is in it then the pure clothing will be regarded as impure even if it becomes damp through this. If the impure clothing was dry and the pure clothing was wet and the impure clothing became damp through the wetness of the pure clothing, and the impure clothing became so wet that this wetness seeped from the impure clothing onto the pure clothing then this too has become impure otherwise not.

Law: If wet feet are placed on impure earth or on bedding then the feet will not be regarded as being impure even if the imprint of the wet feet is evident on it. However, if the earth or bedding becomes so wet with the wetness of the feet that it rubs on to the feet again then in this case the feet will become impure.

Law: If one places his dry feet on wet impure earth or on impure bedding and its wetness came onto the feet then the feet will become impure. If they are merely moist then it is not regarded as being impure.

Law: If an area was prepared with cow dung and it has already dried then keeping wet clothes on it won’t make it impure until such time that the wetness of the clothes does not reach it to the extent where this wetness now comes out of it and rubs back onto the clothing from the dung.

Law: If one slept whilst wearing Najis (impure) clothing or slept on impure bedding and perspired, then in this case if the impure area became wet due to the perspiration and the body then became wet with it then he has become impure otherwise not. 

Law: If wind passed over something impure and then touched the body or clothing, it will not make it impure.

Law: If the gusset of the clothes was wet and one passed wind then the clothing will not be regarded as being impure.

Law: If the smoke from some impure thing comes onto the body or clothing, it will not make it impure. The same applies to the steam that came out when burning something which is impure. It will not make the body or clothing impure even if it causes the entire clothing to become wet. However, if the signs of impurity become visible on it then it will be regarded as being impure.

Law: If the smoke of a dung-cake (used to burn when cooking etc.) touches the roti (bread), it will not cause it to become impure.

 Law: If some impure thing was thrown into the water of a DahDardah and due to this drops of water splashed onto the clothing; the clothing will not be impure. However, if you are aware that those drops are from the impure substance or thing then in this case the clothing will be impure.

Law: If flies flew over faeces and then sat on clothing the clothing will not be impure. Law: The mud (sludge) on the road is regarded as being pure until such time that its impurity is not known; so if it comes onto the feet or clothing and one reads Namaaz without washing it off the Namaaz will be valid but it is better to wash it off. 

 Law: If water was being sprinkled on the road and tiny drops from the ground splashed onto the clothing then in this case the clothing will not become impure but it is better to wash it.

Law: If the skin of a human even if it be the size of a finger nail, falls into some water (i.e. less than the amount of Dah-Dardah), it will make the water impure and if the fingernail by itself falls in then it is not impure.

Law: If one cleaned one’s self after passing stool or urine with clods and thereafter that area began to perspire and the perspiration got onto the clothing, it will not make the clothing impure.

Law: If impure water was mixed in pure sand, it has become impure.

Law: If impure chaff was mixed in pure sand then if it is a little, it is absolutely pure and if it is a lot, it will not be regarded as being pure until such time that it dries up.

Law: If a dog touches ones clothing or body then even if its body is wet the body and the clothes are regarded as being pure. However, if there is any impurity on its body then it is a different issue; if its saliva touches the body and clothing then it is impure.

Law: If a dog or any other animal whose saliva is regarded as impure puts its mouth into flour then if the flour has already been kneaded into dough then the area that was touched by its mouth should be removed and the remainder is regarded as pure. If the flour was dry (i.e. not as yet kneaded into dough) then the amount of flour that has become wet should be thrown away.

Law: ‘Aab-e-Musta’mal’, i.e. used water is regarded as being pure. ‘Naushaadar’ is also pure.

Law: With the exception of a swine (pig), all the bones of other animals which do not have the greasiness of the dead animal on it and the hair and teeth of these animals are regarded as being clean.

Law: The (clear) discharge which is emitted from the vagina of a female is regarded as being clean. If it comes onto the clothing or body then to wash it is not necessary. It is however, better to wash it off.

Note: This does not refer to semen or discharge due to arousal etc.

Law: Meat which has become rotten and has a bad odour is Haraam to eat even though it may not be classified as being Najis (impure).

Method of Purifying Contaminated Items

Those things which are intrinsically Najis (impure) and are classified as being an impurity in itself, such as alcohol or faeces etc. cannot become Paak (pure) until it does not change or is (completely) altered from its natural state. Alcohol will remain impure until it is alcohol but if it becomes vinegar then now it is regarded as being pure.

Law: If alcohol was kept in a vessel and the alcohol became vinegar in the vessel then the portion of the vessel which contains the vinegar will also be regarded as being purified. If droplets of alcohol contaminated the top of the vessel before it became vinegar then that portion of the vessel will not be regarded as being purified merely on the basis of the alcohol becoming vinegar. Similarly, if alcohol was full to the mouth of the vessel and some fell out, leaving the vessel slightly empty and thereafter the alcohol turned into vinegar then in this case the upper section of the vessel which was impure before will now not be regarded as being purified. If the vinegar is poured out of it then even the vinegar will be regarded as being impure. If a ladle etc. (such as that which is used for measuring out liquids) is used to remove the vinegar then it will be regarded as being pure. If onions or garlic etc. fell into the alcohol then these will also be regarded as being pure after the alcohol has become vinegar.

Law: If a rat fell into alcohol and swelled up and disintegrated then even after it becomes vinegar, the vinegar is impure, if the rat did not swell up and disintegrate then if the rat was removed before the alcohol became vinegar and it only became vinegar thereafter then it will be regarded as being pure. If it was removed and thrown away after the alcohol became vinegar then the vinegar is also regarded as being impure.

Law: If a drop of urine fell into alcohol, if a dog put its mouth into the alcohol or if impure vinegar was mixed into the alcohol then even after becoming vinegar, it will still be regarded Haraam and impure.

Law: To purchase alcohol, order it, transport it or store it are all Haraam even if it is for the purpose of turning it into vinegar.

Law: If an impure (Najis) animal fell into a salt mine and turned into salt then that salt is regarded as being pure and Halaal. 

Law: The ash of a dung-cake is pure and if it became extinguished before burning into ash then it is impure.

Law: There are numerous methods of purifying those things which are not intrinsically Najis (impure) but become impure because of being polluted by some impurity. An impurity can be cleansed off and made pure by using water or any liquid substance that has the ability of flowing (and which will remove the impurity). For example, vinegar and rose water (essence) can be used to remove an impurity, thus they can be used to wash and purify the body and the clothing.

Beneficial Note: To use vinegar and rose water etc. to purify and cleanse something without a valid reason is impermissible, as it is a waste of money.

Law: If used water and tea is used to clean off an impurity it will purify it (i.e. the clothing etc.).

Law: If the use of saliva causes some impurity to be removed, it will be regarded as being pure, such as in the case where a child drinks milk and then vomits it on the breast; thereafter if the child drank milk a few more times causing the sign of the vomit to fade away then in this case the breast area is pure.

Note: In other words, if a breastfeeding child vomits on the breast of the mother the breast is purified by the saliva of the child when the child drinks a few times thereafter by suckling. Another example is that which is in regards to the condition of the mouth of the one who consumes alcohol. This ruling has been explained earlier in this section.

Law: Cleaning with milk, gravy (soup) or oil will not make something pure, as these liquids do not allow the impurity to be removed.

Law: If the impurity is thick, such as faeces, dung and blood etc. there are no conditions stipulating how many times it needs to be washed. It is actually necessary to wash it off completely. If it only takes one wash to clean it off then washing it once is sufficient to make it Paak (purified) and if it only becomes pure by washing it four or five times then it must be washed four or five times. However, if the impurity is cleaned off in washing less than thrice then in this case it is Mustahab (desirable) to complete washing it thrice.

Law: If the impurity has been washed off but some effects of it, such as its smell or colour is still evident then it is necessary to get rid of this as well. However, if it is very difficult to get rid of this effect then to get rid of it is not necessary. Washing it thrice will make the item pure. To wash using soap, something sour or hot water is not necessary.

Law: If an impure colour (dye etc.) stained the hand or if one used impure Mehndi (henna) on the hand, it should be washed so many times that clean water starts to drop off. It will then be regarded as being purified even if the colour (stain) is still evident on the hand or clothes.

Law: If one mixed some saffron or dye to dye clothing and a child makes urine in it; or if any other impurity pollutes it then in this case if one has already dyed the clothing with it, washing the clothing thrice will make it purified. 

Law: In regards to tattooing wherein a needle is used to prick a hole and collyrium is used in it (as ink); In this case, if the amount of blood which came out is an amount that can flow then it is obvious that the blood is impure and the collyrium which was applied on it, will also become impure. Thereafter, if that area is washed it will become purified even if the colour of the impure collyrium remains there. Similarly, if ash was filled into a wound and was then washed out it will be purified even if the colour is still visible.

Note: This however does not mean that tattooing is permissible. Tattooing is totally forbidden and a sinful act. The ruling in regards to purifying this area has been explained in order to explain the rule of purification of impurities. For detailed explanation on the ruling regarding tattooing peruse Bahaar e Shariat Volume 16, Chapter 39.

Law: If impure oil polluted the body or clothing, washing it thrice will allow the area to be purified even if the greasiness of the oil is still evident. There is no need for one to take the trouble of washing it with soap or hot water. However, if it was polluted by the fat of a dead animal (carrion) then until such time that its greasiness does not fade away it will not be regarded as being purified.

Law: If the impurity is fluid like then to wash it thrice and squeeze it adequately, using ones full strength thrice will purify it. To squeeze it adequately with ones full strength means that the person who is squeezing it should squeeze it with his full strength, to the extent that if he squeezes it after this again, no drop should come out of it. If he worries about the clothing and does not squeeze it thoroughly, it will not be purified. 

Law: If the person who washed the garment squeezed it adequately to his full strength, but now it is such that if some other person who is stronger than him squeezes it, then one or two drops of water will drip off. In this case, it is regarded as purified for the one who washed it and impure for the second person. The strength of the second person is not taken into account in this case. However, if the second person washed it and squeezed it with the same amount of strength as the first person then it would have been regarded as being impure.

Law: It is better to purify (i.e. wash) the hand after squeezing it for the first and second time and squeezing it for the third time purifies the garment and the hand as well. If there is still an amount of wetness left in the garment that if it is squeezed, one or two drops of water will still drip out then both the clothing and the hands are impure.

Law: If one did not wash the hands after squeezing it for the first and second time and its wetness caused the clean portion of the garment to become wet then this too has become impure. Then if it became wet by squeezing after the first time, it should be washed twice more and if it became wet with the wetness on the hand after squeezing it for the second time then it should be washed once. Similarly, if some pure clothing becomes wet due to the garment which was washed and then squeezed once then this too must be washed (i.e. rinsed) twice and if that clothing became wet through it after squeezing it for the second time, then it will become purified by washing it once.

Law: If one washed any clothing thrice and squeezed it adequately after washing it each time but after hanging it out to dry, water dripped from it then this water is regarded as clean but if one did not squeeze it adequately then this water is regarded as impure.

Law: The ruling with regards to a male or female milk drinking child is the same. In other words, if their urine pollutes the clothing or body it must be washed and squeezed thrice.

Law: Items which cannot be squeezed, such as grass-mats, utensils and shoes etc. should be washed and left out until such time that the water stops dripping from it. The same process should be repeated for a second and third time. Once the water stops dripping for the third time, it will be regarded as being purified. It is not necessary to dry it each time after washing it. Similarly, that fabric which cannot be squeezed due to its delicate nature should be purified in the same manner.

Law: If the item is such that the impurity did not become soaked into it, such as a china (porcelain) plate, an old used greasy earthen plate or items made from metals such as iron, copper and brass then to simply wash them thrice is sufficient. It is also not necessary to leave it out long enough for the water to stop dripping from it.

Law: It is better to scour impure crockery (plates, bowls etc.) by using (pure) earth.

Law: If boiled (tanned) hide becomes impure then if it can be squeezed it should be squeezed, otherwise it should be washed thrice and each time it should be left out for the amount of time it takes for the water to stop dripping from it. 

  Law: If a mattress, carpet or any other impure fabric is left in flowing water for the entire night, it will become clean. The authenticity in this matter is that, if there is a predominant likelihood that if left in the water for a certain amount of time the flowing water will carry away the impurity, it will be regarded as being clean within that time, as squeezing the item is not a condition when purifying it with flowing water.

Law: If a portion of the clothing has become impure and one is not able to remember which portion of the clothing this is then in such a case it is better to wash the entire garment. In other words, this is in the case where one has no idea at all regarding which portion of the clothing has been polluted. If however, one knows that the sleeve or collar has become impure but one is not sure which part of the sleeve or collar has become impure then in this case, washing the sleeve or the collar is in reality equivalent to washing the entire garment. If one considers using assumption in regards to the polluted area and one thus washes that area which one assumes has been polluted then too it will become clean.

 Even if one washes just any portion of the garment without even considering it then too it will be regarded as being cleaned. However, in this case if after performing a few Salaahs whilst wearing this clothing, one realises that the correct area had not been washed then it should be rewashed and those Namaaz should be repeated. If one washed it after consideration and then after reading Namaaz in those clothes realised that the wrong portion has been washed then in this case the clothing should be rewashed but there is no need to repeat the Namaaz.

Law: If a mattress, carpet or any other impure fabric is left in flowing water for the entire night, it will become clean. The authenticity in this matter is that, if there is a predominant likelihood that if left in the water for a certain amount of time the flowing water will carry away the impurity, it will be regarded as being clean within that time, as squeezing the item is not a condition when purifying it with flowing water.

Law: If a portion of the clothing has become impure and one is not able to remember which portion of the clothing this is then in such a case it is better to wash the entire garment. In other words, this is in the case where one has no idea at all regarding which portion of the clothing has been polluted. If however, one knows that the sleeve or collar has become impure but one is not sure which part of the sleeve or collar has become impure then in this case, washing the sleeve or the collar is in reality equivalent to washing the entire garment. If one considers using assumption in regards to the polluted area and one thus washes that area which one assumes has been polluted then too it will become clean.

Even if one washes just any portion of the garment without even considering it then too it will be regarded as being cleaned. However, in this case if after performing a few Salaahs whilst wearing this clothing, one realises that the correct area had not been washed then it should be rewashed and those Namaaz should be repeated. If one washed it after consideration and then after reading Namaaz in those clothes realised that the wrong portion has been washed then in this case the clothing should be rewashed but there is no need to repeat the Namaaz.

Law: It is not necessary to wash all 3 times at once. If it is washed thrice over different times and even over a period of different days, it will still be regarded as being purified.

Law: If an item made from iron, such as a knife, dagger or sword etc. which has no rust on it or has no design or engraving on it becomes impure then properly wiping it clean will purify it. In this case, it will not make any difference whether the impurity is thick or a liquid. Similarly, wiping all other metal items such as silver, gold, gilt etc. will allow it to become pure. This is on condition that the item has no engraving or design on it or it has not become rusted. If the item has a design or has become rusted then simply wiping it will not make it pure; it must be washed.

Law: If mirror or glassware and china (porcelain) dishware, greasy earthenware or polished (i.e. varnished) wood; in other words all such things which have no pores are wiped with a cloth or with leaves, to the extent that no sign or effect of the impurity is left on it at all, it will become purified.

Law: If semen gets onto the clothing and becomes dry then simply rubbing it and dusting it off and cleaning it, will allow the clothing to become purified even if some stain of it is still left on the clothing after rubbing it off. In this issue, the ruling regarding semen of males, females, all humans, animals, a healthy person, a person suffering from Bright’s disease (also known as chronic nephritis) is alike.

Law: If semen gets onto the body it may also be cleansed in the same manner (as mentioned above).

Law: If after passing urine one did not clean ones self either with water or by using a clod and semen pass on the area which has urine on it then this will not be purified by rubbing but it is necessary to wash it. In the case where one has cleaned one’s self or if the semen spurts out, in a manner whereby it did not touch that actual area where there was the impurity (of the urine) then it will become purified if rubbed off properly.

Law: The clothing which is purified by being rubbed clean will not become impure if it becomes wet by water.

Law: If semen got onto the clothing and is still wet, it will only be cleansed by washing. Rubbing it off in this case will not be sufficient.

 Law: If thick impurity such as faeces, dung or semen gets onto the sock or shoe then even though that impurity is thick, it will be cleansed by scraping or scratching it off.

Law: If the impurity that has got onto the clothing is thin like urine and earth, ash or sand etc. is put on it and scratched, it will still be regarded as being purified but if one did not do this and the impurity dried up then now it will not be regarded as being purified until such time that it is washed.

Law: If impure ground (earth) becomes dry and the signs and effects of the impurity, such as its colour and smell vanish, it has become purified even if it dried due to the wind, the suns heat or due to fire. However, to use it for tayammum is not permissible but Namaaz can be performed on this ground.

Law: If there was impure water in a well and the entire well dried up, it has become purified.

Law: Trees, grass, walls and bricks that are fixed in the ground will all become purified by becoming dry. If the brick is not fixed to the ground, it will not become pure by becoming dry but it is necessary to wash it. Similarly, if a tree or grass was cut off before it dried, it is necessary for it to be washed to become cleansed.

Law: If stone (rock) is of such a type that it cannot be separated from the ground then it will become cleansed by drying, otherwise it must be washed.

Law: A grinding stone will become cleansed by drying.

Law: Those stones or pebbles which are above the ground will not become cleansed by drying and those which are associated with the earth will fall within the ruling of earth.

Law: Those things which were connected to the earth (ground) and became impure but were separated after becoming dry, will still be regarded as being pure.

Law: If impure sand (clay etc) was used to make earthenware, then for as long as it is unbaked, it is regarded as being impure. It will become purified after being baked (i.e. after becoming hardened).

Law: If drops of impure water were sprinkled on a ‘Tanoor’ (oven/stove) or ‘Tawa’ (hot plate or pan on which roti is made) and the heat caused the wetness or moisture to evaporate. Thereafter, the roti (bread) that is cooked on it will be regarded as pure. 

 Law: It is permissible to burn dry dung-cakes in order to cook food. Law: If something which became cleansed by drying or by scraping etc. and then became wet afterwards it will not be regarded as being impure.

Law: With the exception of a pig, the flesh and hide of every animal, be it Halaal or Haraam as long as it is an animal that can be made Zibah and it was sacrificed by saying ‘Bismillahi Allahu Akbar’ is regarded as being Paak (clean). In other words, if that meat is in the possession of a Namaazi (worshipper) or if he performed his Namaaz on that animal hide, the Namaaz will be regarded as being valid. However, making a Haraam animal Zibah will not render it Halaal. It will still remain Haraam. Note: It must be noted that there is a difference between something being pure, i.e. clean and it being Halaal. It does not mean that if something is regarded as clean, it is Halaal for consumption or use. An example of this is sand. Even though sand is pure, it is not Halaal for consumption.

Law: With the exception of a pig, the hide of every animal becomes clean after drying (tanning) whether it was tanned by boiling it with ‘khari namak’ or with any other chemical, or if it was simply left out to dry in the sun or it dried due to the wind and all its moisture dries off allowing its odour to fade away. In both cases, it will be regarded as being purified and Namaaz on it is permissible.

Law: Even though the hide of a predatory beast has been tanned, one should neither sit on it nor perform Namaaz on it as this causes one to become harsh in temperament and it leads to pride and arrogance. Sitting on goat and ram hide and wearing it as well causes one to become gentle in temperament and brings about humility. Even if the hide of a dog has been tanned or it has been made Zibah, it should not be used as it is advisable to protect yourself from the differences of the Learned Imams and from the repulsion of the people.

Law: If a portion of wool has become impure and one has a positive notion that this will be blown away whilst wool-combing then combing it will allow it to be purified, if not it will not be cleansed without being washed. If one is not aware how much of it is impure then wool-combing will also allow it to become cleaned.

Law: If the corn is on the tree (or under the feet) and whilst stamping it the oxen urinated in it then if it was distributed amongst a few people who share in it, if it was paid out as wages to the labourers or if it was distributed as Khairaat (charity) then all will be regarded as being cleansed. If all of it remains in its actual form then it is regarded as being impure. If however, one washes and purifies an amount believing that more than it could not have become impure then all of it will be become clean.

Law: When pewter and lead are melted they become clean.

Law: If a rat falls into clarified-butter (Ghee) which has solidified and dies then the ghee from near the rat should be removed whilst the remainder will be regarded as being pure and can be eaten. If the ghee is thin (liquid) then all the ghee has become impure and to eat it is impermissible. However, it can be used for something wherein the use of such an impurity is not disallowed. The ruling with regards to oil is the same. 

Law: If honey becomes impure then the method to clean it is as follows: Pour more water than the amount of honey into it and boil it until all the water evaporates leaving only the amount of honey which was there. Following this process thrice will purify the honey.

Law: The method of cleaning impure oil is as follows: An amount of water equivalent to the oil should be poured into it and it should be stirred well. Thereafter the oil should be removed from the surface and the water should be thrown away. This should be done thrice. Another method is to make a hole at the bottom of the vessel allowing all the water to flow out and only the oil to remain. Doing this thrice will also purify the oil. Another method is to put in the same amount of water and then boil the oil until such time that all the water evaporates and the oil remains. Doing this thrice will also purify the oil. One other method is to take pure oil or water and keep it in a separate vessel and both the impure oil and the pure oil should be poured out in one strain together from a height. However, in this method one should make sure that the strain of the impure oil should not separate at any time from the strain of the pure oil or water and should make sure that not a single drop of impure oil has fallen into the vessel before this and nor afterwards; otherwise it will become impure again. The method of purifying other flowing things such as (liquid) ghee etc. is the same. If the ghee has become solidified then it should be melted and one of the above mentioned methods should be used to purify it. One other method of purifying such things is to keep a vessel under the roof drain-pipe and to allow something pure of the same type or water to be mixed with it and it should be allowed to flow in a manner whereby both strains fall from the drain-pipe as one strain. In this way all will become pure. Another method is to boil it with its own type of thing or with water. In this way it will be purified.

 Law: In order to read Namaaz, the area on the prayer mat (Musal’la) where the hands, feet, forehead and nose touch must be Paak (pure). If there is impurity on any other part of the prayer mat it will not hinder the Namaaz. However, it is necessary in Namaaz not to come in close contact with any impurity.

Law: If some impurity soiled any fabric and the impurity remained on one side and did not affect the other side at all then in this case one cannot turn it over and read Namaaz on the other side, no matter how thick the fabric is; unless the impurity has not soiled the actual area on which Sajdah is made, i.e. the actual area of Namaaz as mentioned above.

Law: If one layer of a two layer fabric has become impure and both have been sewn together then Namaaz on the other layer is not permissible. If they are not sewn together then Namaaz on the other layer is permissible.

Law: If a wooden panel becomes impure from one side then if it is so thick that it can be ripped (split) in thickness then one may turn it over and read Namaaz on it, otherwise not.

Law: Namaaz is not permissible on that ground which has been prepared with dung, even if it becomes dry. However, if a thick cloth has been placed over it then Namaaz may be performed on the cloth even if it has some wetness on it. The wetness should however not be to the extent that it causes the ground to become wet and in turn wets the cloth because in this case the cloth with become impure and Namaaz on it will be impermissible.

Law: If impure Surmah (antimony) or Kaajal (collyrium) was applied to the eye and it spread then to wash it is Waajib. If it is inside the eyes only and is not on the outside then it is excused.

Law: If one sees some impurity on the clothing of another Muslim and he believes that by informing him of this, he will clean it out then in such a case it is Waajib to inform him of it.

Law: The clothing used by a fasiq (sinful person) where it is not known whether it is impure or not, will be regarded as being pure but the precaution in regards to the pants etc. of a person who does not pray his Namaaz is that the gusset should be purified (cleaned) because many non-Namaazis just wear their pants after passing urine. One must be even more cautious with regards to cleaning of such clothes of the unbelievers.

Reference:  https://yaqoobmadani.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/engbahareshariat-vol2taharat.pdf 


The noblest verse of Qur’aan - 2 - Quran Chapter 2- 255 (Pt-3, Stg-1) (L-326) - درس قرآن

Quran   Chapter 2- 255 (Pt-3, Stg-1) (L-326) -   درس   قرآن The noblest verse of Qur’aan - 2 Surah ‘Al-Baqarah  (The Cow) – C...