Sunday, July 31, 2016

The Pilgrimage (Hajj)

The Pilgrimage (Hajj)

After entering into the Islamic Fold or community by accepting the Faith (Eiman) as heart and pronouncing the said Faith through verbal declaration Four Fundamental modes of worship (Ibadat) become obligatory in every Muslim.
These are:
1. The Salaat or Namaz
2. Sayam (Fasting)
3. Zakaat (Poor-rate)
4. Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Holy Lord of Makkah and Madinah.
The Performance of Hajj begins with the observance of the prescribed process laid down in this behalf in letters and spirit the very first essential part is to enter the Holy Land of Makkah by wearing the Ihram (Un stitched) long piece of cloth (preferably cotton) form the fixed places and on entering the inner limits of Khana-e-Kaaba (also known as Haram Sharif) the intending pilgrim (Haji) must go (at least seven times) round the Holy Kaaba, known as Tawaf (literal meaning is going round and round) followed by the normal paced running up and down between the famous hillocks of Safa and Merwa (or Sa'ee) with these initial rituals being fulfilled the Hajis make a compulsory stop over and stay at the Maidan-e-Arafat (near Mecca). This is the most obligatory part and procedure of the Hajj. Further details of these and other rituals and ceremonies shall be declared in the following. The Description, so far only constitutes the introduce to the great and more elaborate procedures and processes of Hajj.

As soon as a person becomes eligible for Hajj, it becomes obligatory for him to undertake this pilgrimage at the first available opportunity. A delay in the connection will amount to commit a run and if he fails to discharge this obligatory continuously for years, he will be deemed a sinner (and liable to punishment) in the eyes of Allah and his evidence will not be worth reliance. However there is no Qaza (compensating an obligation -Farz- at a later date) at whatever time he performs Hajj it will be adjudged as having been performed in time (Ada).
Time for Hajj
The time for Hajj is from the month of shawwal (10th month of Hijri calender) till the 10th of Zil Hajj (the 12th and the last month of Hijri calendar). Before shawwal and after 10th Zil Hajj the Hajj is not permissible except Ahram which can be performed before this, but this is makrooh.

Conditions for Hajj
There are eight (8) conditions for the Hajj which must be all present at the time of performing Hajj to make the Hajj, Farz (obligatory). These conditions are:
1. To be a Muslim.
2. If he is residing in Darul Harb (literally it means a city or place which is at war with Islam. In general ENNOTAHAN it stands for any un-islamic country) and it should affirmed that the obligation of Hajj is declared as such for the residents of that place.
3. To be major in age (Baligh).
4. Possessing normal sensibility (Aqal). Note Hajj is not Farz on a person who is mentally deranged.
5. To be independent or Free (not a slave)
6. In good health to go to the Hajj and perform various rites etc with fortitude. NOTE: Hajj is not obligatory on a handicapped person, a blind and one whose legs have been WIMPUTED, or one who is so old and DECEXPIT who is unable to sit a right on a carriage of riding animal.
PROBLEM:-Formally a person was normal and eligible in all respects, but did not perform Hajj, now he becomes handicapped and cannot go to the Hajj, he is now exempt from the Hajj, however, he can sent some one for Hajj-e-Badal (doing Hajj on his behalf, This will give him the reward (sawab) for the Hajj and the man doing Hajj on behalf will also be rewarded).
7.  He should possess enough resources and be capable to BEAR THE TO AND FOR expenses of Hajj (it means that before proceeding for Hajj he should leave sufficient money for the household expenses in his absence after meeting all expenses such as travel ,transport, stay at the Holy Places etc ; this means the money/resources left at home should SUFFREE the expenses for a moderate clan of family, which he used to support and eater for the needs of his own family and those dependent on him for their essential necessities, known as Hajjat-e-Asliyah which includes the living accommodation clothes of normal use, servants, riding animals, vocational implements, cooking and eating material, borrowings or dues such as loan or dowry.
PROBLEM:-If the means of livelihood and maintenance of the family of the intending pilgrim depend upon the trade/business run by him, then he must leave such quantity of financial security which would not only meet the demands of the family during his absence but would also enable him to resume business/trade with that money, without disturbing the normal affairs of the family. On in this case, Hajj shall be farz (teller of the soil), then offer meeting all essential expenses of the Hajj, beginning with his departure from and arrival back to his house, he must have sufficient amount kept at home to bear the expenses of the implements purchase of seeds etc on his return; only then the Hajj shall be binding of that intending pilgrim.
8. Time: Hajj shall become obligatory at such at time if before proceeding for Hajj he possesses such amount of money that will cover his expenses up to Mecca Moazzama and back to be there at the time of Hajj.
PROBLEM:-For a lady traveler for Hajj if the time distance is of 3 days or more then she must be accompanied by a *Mahram, whether she may be young or old, if the woman travels without any Mahram, she will be committing an act against the law of the Shariat, but if she performs the Hajj without Mahram, the Hajj will be an order and the Farz will be fulfilled.

*Mahram: the man with whom the marriage of the woman is prohibited (Haram) for ever, whether it may be on account of family line age (such as father, son, uncle, brother) or an account of foster age (Raza'at like foster brother, foster father, foster son) P.T.O.


On entering the Holy Land of Mecca and on coming near the *MEEQAT, the intending pilgrim should perform Wazu (ablution) and Ghus'l (Bath), apply perfume and put on the**Ahram, offer two rakats of Nafil with the intent (Niyat) of Ahram and after this recited this prayer.

TRANSLATION:- O Allah! I desire to (perform) Hajj, so make it easy for me and accept it from me; I have made intent (Niyat) for the Hajj and have put on Ahram specially for Almighty Allah.

After this he must recite "Lab'baik in a loud voice (at least three times at a stretch). The full Text of Lab'baik is this


After reciting Lab'baik, he should recite Durood Shareef and read this prayer (Dua')

TRANSLATION:-"O Allah! I beseech Your Pleasure and the Paradise; and I seek Your Refuge from Your Wrath and the Fire (of Hell)."


or it may be on account of relation based on in-law ties (Susrali) like father in law, son of the husband etc).

*Meeqat:Meeqat is the place from where no person preceding to Mecca Sharif should go without `Ahram'. These are five different places in the vicinity of Haram Sharif (Holy Kaba). For persons of the sub-continent of traveling by sea is YALAMOLAM beside the mountain.This place comes through Kamraan and enter the ocean. When the Port Jeddah comes within two or three mile posts (Manzil), the crew of the ship shout loudly informing the people to put on the Ahram.

**Ahram:Unstitched long piece of cloth, popularly known as `Tahband' or `Tahmad' (long single piece of cloth worn round the waist, mostly by men folk) and another piece of cloth of Chadar. The Tahband should be worn in the normal way, while the chadar should be placed in such a way that it covers both the shoulders, the back and the chest completely.

PROBLEM:-While in a state of Ahram it is not permissible that one wears a stitched cloth.
(NOTE: This ends the foot note of the page and carrier over as above. Other points of mentioned as foot note on the page no. 178 of the Book have been incorporate in the running text, resumed here below)

Then moving forward he should recite Lab'baik loudly at least thrice at a time on each occasion when he recites 'Lab'baik. The rehearsal of Lab'baik should be repeated at every turn of movement while offering prayer or changing states, almost incessantly while engaged or disengaged in religious activities. In broad outlines, these occasions are: except from while making Tawaf round the Holy Kaaba, the invocation of Lab'baik should continued countlessly tell the rite of `Rami Jumra' (stoning the devil satan), especially on climbing and coming down the hills (or other elevated places of movements in the Mecca Sharif), meeting of two caravans morning and evening. Last part of the night and after each of the five compulsory prayers; in short at every turn of events or movements in prayers, with or without ablution. Men talk should recite Lab'baik in a loud voice, but not so loud so as to disturb others, while the women should recite the `Labbaik' in a soft voice.

This is the state of Ahram; one should avoid doing or committing a things which are forbidden during the state of Ahram. All around Mecca Sharif for many miles there are forests in which shrubs, plants and trees grow, there are tracts green grass in scattered spaces which are separated from one another by boundary walls. Within these bounded tracks it is forbidden to pluck green grass, cut down the mushroom grown trees or plants to tease the wild animals grazing or living there. All this is haram. The safety and regard for the animals of the Haram Sharif is that if a gazelle, commonly known as deer be sitting under the shade of tree for rest while there is unfenced hot and sun shine around, it is forbidden to drive away the animal simply to take its place for shade and comfort. If someone brings a wild animal within the limits of the Haram Sharif, the same becomes sacred and it should be freed at once. There are many untamed or wild pigeons in Mecca Moazzama. These pigeons are also found living in domestic places, at times scattering their refuse on the ground floor of the house. Whatever their movements in and around the dwelling places, but its absolute forbidden to tease the drive away these pigeons. Some people coming from nearby places do not have the affection for these pigeons. This is undesirable, these poor creatures should be left to themselves, they should not be teased or harassed out of ignorance or dislike. It is worth considering that when the wild animals of Mecca Mokarrama are given so much regard the worth are status of human life and honor can be very well realized. All these things which have been described here are not exclusive while one in a state of Ahram; on the other these are general everlasting principle applicable in all conditions whether a person is with Ahram or otherwise.
Coming back to our main topic of Hajj when a person has gone on this extremely sacred mission. When the intending pilgrim comes near the Haram Sharif, he should proceed with due reverence and respect, head bowed down and eyes fixed on the ground, which are the outward signs of humanity and devotion. It is still more humble and a respectful if the person walks barefoot, repeating the `Labbaik'and the one as much as possible. When he approaches the Haram Sharif and his eyes fall on the Mecca Moazzama (Khana Kaaba) he should pause for a while; he should recite the following `Dua' at the first sight of the Holy Kaba.

TRANSLATION:- O Allah! Grant me comfort by (the blessing of) this, (The Sacred House of Kaaba) and grant me subsistence and pure and clean livelihood in this (Holy Place).

The Durood Sharif should also be recited as much as possible. It is preferable that the man should enter the city after washing and purifying himself with a bath and when he entered the Jammat-ul-Mualla he should pray for the departed souls who are buried these. After this, when he begins to enter the Mecca Sharif he should recites this dua;

TRANSLATION:- O Allah! You are my Lord sustainer and I am Your slave

After going a little further ahead when he reaches Mud'aa he should stop here and after waiting a little here, he should pray with utmost humility and solemnity for the welfare and prosperity for himself, his Kith and kin, friends and all the muslim ummah, the dua should also include Divine mercy for forgiveness of sins and admittance in the Paradise without accountability on the Day of Judgement. This is the moment of acceptance of prayers in the Presence of Allah the Almighty. Recitation of Durood Sharif as much as he can, is very effective at this place and on this occasion, he must repeat "Allaho Akbar" and `La ila ha Ill llah' three times each and recite the following prayer (in Arabic)

TRANSLATION:-"O Allah! Grant us beneficence in this world and in the Hereafter and protect us from the punishment of the Fire (of Hell). O Allah! I beseech You of the welfare which Your Prophet Muhammad (SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam) besought of You; and I seek You Refuge from the Evil which Your Prophet Muhammad (SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam) sought Refuge form."

He should also recite this Dua;


He should also recite this comprehensive `dua' at least three times at the place;

TRANSLATION:-"O Allah! This is Your House and I am Your slave. I beseech You of forgiveness and security in the world and the Hereafter for myself, my parents, and for all Momineen, men and women, for Your slave Shamsuddin. O Allah! grant him victory, a grand victory (Amin)".

He should then move forward and when he reaches Mecca Muazamma, he should first of all enter the Masjid-e-Har'am, remembering Allah and His Apostle all the time and praying for the success and prosperity of all the Musalman, in the world and in the Hereafter. Reciting `Lab'baik' he should approach Bab-us-Satam and kissing the threshold he must put right foot forward and enter the Haram Sharif and recite this Dua,

Remember this dua by heard and whenever you happen to enter Masjid-ul-Haram (or any other masjid), recite this dua or prayer; and add the following phrases in this dua,

TRANSLATION:-"O Allah! You are Satam (security) and form You is security- peace and the peace returns to Your presence (ultimately). O our Lord! keep us alive with security and admit us in the Paradise (Daras Satam - the Abode of peace). O our Lord! You are full of Blessing and Highly Elevated, O the Lord with Grandeur and Beneficence. O Allah! This is Your Haram and the Place of Your peace. Forbid and deter the Fire for the Hell to on engulf my flesh, my skin, my face, my blood, my brain and my bones. (Amin)


When the sight (eye) falls on the Kaaba Sharif, he should recite "Laa' ilaa' ha Il-lAllaa'ho, Wallaaho Akbar" three times, then the Durood Sharif and this Dua'

He should start `Tawaf' (going round the Khana-e-Kaaba) in the Name of Almighty Allah. The `Tawaf' in the fixed limits known as Mutafa or the place of Tawaf should begin from the Hajar-e-Aswad in the way that when approaches Hajar-e-Aswad, he should recite this prayer (dua),

TRANSLATION:-There is no god but Allah. The One, He made His Promise True and He helped His (Apostle) servant (against the infidels) and vanquished their forces. He is Absolutely One, He has no Associate ( in His Godhood), The rule of the world belongs to Him, all Praise is due to Him and He has Power (and Authority) over every things.

Before starting Tawaf (going round) of the Kaaba Sharif he must perform ISTABAA.

Then keeping his face at the Kaaba at the right side of the Hajar-e-Aswad, he should stand by the Rukn-e-Yaman in such a way that the full view of Hajar-e-Aswas remains at his right hand. Now he must make the Niyat (intent) of the Tawaf saying.

("O Allah! I intend to make Tawaf of Your sacred House, so make it easy for me and accept it from me.")

After the Niyat keeping the face towards the Kaaba, he should move on the right side and when he reaches Hajar-e-Aswad, he should raise his hands up to the ears and opening the palms towards Hajar-e-Aswad he should recite

Now, if it is possible, he should try keeping his palms at the sides of the Hajar-e-Aswad, to kiss the Hajar-e-Aswad in a soft reverential manner without make sound of his kiss. He should do this three times. If he succeeds to touch the Hajar-e-Aswad with his lips, then he must regard himself a most fortunate that he is blessed with the Divine favor to allow him to kiss the Hajar-e-Aswad to which the lips of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa - SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam - had graced by their holy touch over 1400 years ago. If on account the pressing such he cannot succeed to kiss the Hajar-e-Aswad, he should not resort to push and move others to achieve his desire. If he can touch the Hajar-e-Aswad by the hands, it is enough for him to touch the Hajar-e-Aswad, and then kiss his own hands. If even this is not possible to touch the sacred stone on account of rush then he should keep his open palms towards the Hajar-e-Aswad and kiss then feeling at heart had he is kissing the Hajar-e-Aswad. This process of kissing is known as ISTILAAM (presenting and conveying the good wishes of salaam). At the time of ISTILAAM, he should recite the following prayers (dua):

(" O Allah! Forgive me of my sins and purify my heart and expand my breast and make easy my affair and give me protection and those whom You gave protection"). Then he should recite,

(" O Allah! I affair my Eiman with You, and testify the Truth of Your Book (The Holy Quran) and fulfill The Promise with You and obey and follow the sunnat of Your Prophet Muhammad - SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam - and bear witness that there is no god but Allah The only One, there is associate with Aim, and I bear witness that Muhammad (SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam) Abd and apostle. I affirm my Eiman with Allah and denounce (reject) the and the Devil saying this he should proceed towards the door (exit) of the Kaaba and while doing so when he has passed by  the Hajar-e-Aswad, he should stand erect and walk in such a way that the Kaaba remains on his left hand. While walking he should not ease inconvenience to any one, he should remain as close to the Kaaba as possible, without touching the cover of the Kaaba by his body or the clothes, when he comes in front of the MULTAZIM, he should recite this dua:

TRANSLATION:- O Allah! This House is Your House, and The Sacred Place of Your Sacred Place, and The Peace of Your Peace and this is Your Place of protection from the Fire (of Hell), so protect me from the Fire (of Hell). O Allah! give me contentment with what Your have provide me and grant blessing (and affluence) in it and I pray in absence of those who are not present. There is no god but Allah the One, there is none to associate Him, The governance of the Universe belongs to Him, all Praise is due to Him, and He has Power (and Authority) over every thing.

When he comes in front of the Rukn-e-Arafi, he should recite this dua,
(O Allah! I seek Your refuge form prevarication (skepticism) and infidelity (disbelief),and when he comes in front of MEEZAAB-E-RAHMAT, he should recite the following dua,

(O Allah! Give me shade below the Shade of Your Throne on the Day when there is no Shade except Your shade and nothing shall survive except Your countenance and make me drink from the Pond of Your Apostle Muhammad - SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam - the sweet drink after which there shall be thirst for ever).

And when he reaches RUKN-E-SHAMI, he should recite the following prayer;

( O Allah! Make this as Hajj-e-Mabroor (Rule of Goodness and Blessing) and the endeavor (worthy) of Thankfulness and the trade/business where there is no loss O one Who Knows what is in the heart (breast). Take me away from the darkness towards the Noor, light.

And when he comes to the RUKNE-E-YAMANI, he should touch it with both hands or only the right hand, he may also kiss at if he so desire; he should recite this prayer;

(O Allah! I beseech Your Forgiveness and Security in this world and in the Hereafter).

Just ahead of the RUKNE-E-YAMANI there is mustajab. Here he may recite the above mentioned dua or recite,

or he may only recite Durood Sharif.(NOTE: At this place or at all those places where he prays for himself he may preferable recite only Durood Sharif instead of other prayers/duas. Dua, Durood etc should not be recited very loudly).

Now after turning round the aforesaid places he comes back to Hajar-e-Aswad again. This is One Full Circuit. Even at this place he must offer Istilam at the Hajar-e-Aswad. In this way he do six more rounds or Tawaf of the Kaaba, to make the total circuits seven in number. In the first three rounds he must also do `Ramal', when he completes seven rounds, it means he has performed One Tawaf. This is known as `Tawaf-e-Qudoom'. After Tawaf he should come to Maqam-e-Ibrahim, here after reciting the verse; he should offer two rakats of Namaz-e-Tawaf. This is Wajib.

In the first rakat of Namaz-e-Tawaf he should recite

and in the second rakat

the Namaz-e-Tawaf he may recite the following `dua' which is mentioned in the Hadees;

( O Allah! You know my secrets and open apparent things of mine, therefore accept my excuse You know my needs therefore grant my requests (baggings); You know what is in my self, so forgive my sins. O Allah! I beg you of Eiman (asa) pleasure of my heart and the true certainly. You know only that will befall me what You have written (ordained) for me and make my livelihood (subsistence) as a means of contentment for me what You have apportioned

for me O the most merciful of the merciful ones).

Now after Namaz and dua he should go to the Multazim and embrace the Multazim near the Hajar-e-Aswad place. The chest and both the cheeks on the Multazim, spread both his arms raising over the head and testing on the wall or put the right hand at the side of the door of the Kaaba and the left hand stretched towards the Hajar-e-Aswad and recite this dua;


after embracing Multazim, he should come to well of Zamzam. If it possible, he should draw one bucket of water from the well of Zamzam himself, otherwise he may get the water from some other person and keeping his face towards he should drink Zamzam as much as he can in three breaths, in standing posture. Every fresh drink he should begin with `Bismillaah' and finish with `Alhamdo Lillaah' keeping his eyes each time on the Kaaba or at least have a glance at it. The remaining water he may pour on his body or wash his hands, face and continue reciting `dua' while engaged in this process. The Holy Prophet (Allah's grace and peace be upon him) has said that `dua' at this time is accepted in the Presence of Almighty Allah. He has also said that the Zamzam is a cure for any ailment when it is sought with due faith in it. The dua prescribed at this moment is this;

(O Allah! I beseech You The Knowledge which is Beneficial, the subsistence which is vast (abundant) and the Deed which is worth acceptance (and reward) and The Cure for all diseases (ailments) or the all embracing due quoted earlier). It is also blissful to look into the Well of Zamzam from above the ground it also removes, removes rancor and hyperisy from the heart.

Now, if he is not tired and willing to engage himself for the Sa'ee literally meaning endeavor or attempt but in the context of Hajj it is a ritual which is undertaken by way of brisk walking or balanced running on the hills of Safa and Marwa. Before proceeding for the Sa'ee he should come to the Hajar-e-Aswad kiss it if he can manage otherwise keeping the face to it he should recite "Allaaho Akbar Wa Laa ilaa ha IllAllaah Wal Hamdo Lillaah"

and repeating the Durood Sharif he must move to the Hill of Safa passing through the Gate of Safa (while coming from the door of masjid he should first take the left foot out and while using shoes or any footwear) put in the right foot first. This is the procedure to he followed always and at all places while coming out from the masjid, rehearsing the usual due.

Remembering Allah and reciting Durood Sharif he should climb the first stairs and stay there for a moment and before raising foot for the second stair, he should recite;


Then turning his face towards Kaba, raising both his hands upto his shoulders and stretching them (hands) apart, he should pause there for such a length of time which wowed take rehearsing 35 verses of the Surah Baqarah, repeating durood, tasbeeh, tahleel (Kalama-e-Tayyebah), he should pray for one's own self, his parents, friends kith and kin and the Ummate Muslimah. This is the place and occasion when prayers are heard and granted by the Divine Grace.

After the Dua he should make niyat (intent) for the Sa'ee. The Niyat for the sa'ee is this:

(O Allah! I intend doing Sa'ee between Safa and Marwah, so make it easy for me and accept it from me).Then coming down from the Safa, he should more towards Marwa reciting verses and Durood and he covers the distance of the first mile, he should start running and continue running a little beyond the second mile, then walk slowly and reciting rites without stopping should go upto Marwa and here climbing the first step signifies going up the Merwa, but he should not recline against the wall (which is the practice of the ignorant people). Here on account of new structures the view of Kaba is not possible, yet the face should he towards Kaba, repeating and reciting rites prayers (dua) Durood Sharif as usual. This completes the first round of the Sa'ee.

From here he should again move to Safa will all the rituals and recitals as in the first instance, when he reaches the mile of Marwa he should start running till he passes the Mile of Safa, he should then slow down and climb the Safa. This completes the second round. Similarly again from Merwa to Safa, this is the fourth round. In this way he should complete the fifth, the sixth and the seventh rounds. This Endeavor (running) is known as Sa'ee, starting from Safa and ending at Marwa. In between tow miles there shall be seven times running.

After the Saee he should stay at Mecca till the 8th of Zil-Hajj and continue reciting `Labbaik' in a simple manner without ISTABA, Ramial or Sa'ee and on completion of every seventh round (of Tawaf) he should two Rakats of Nafil at Maqam-e-Ibrahim on the seventh when the Imam delivers sermon (Khutba) after Zohar he should attend and listen to it. On the eight (8th) after the sun-rise he should move from Makkah to Mina, reciting Labbaik, Durood

dua throughout the way. When Mina comes to sight, he should recite

(O Allah! This is Mina so grant me the favor of grace and peace with which You have favored Your Friends. After reaching Mina he should stay here for the night. From this day at Zohar till the morning of 10th he should all the prayers at Mina, alongwith Durood and other rites (Azkaar, Dua etc) At the break if down in


*: Here also the hands should be kept in the same as they are kept after in the Namaz, that is the palms should be towards the sky, hand outstretched right in front of the breast. Nothing

against this as some persons doing Tawaf are seen doing this.

the 9th, he should offer the Fajar Prayer, busying himself thereafter in Durood etc like the sun shines on the hillock of Shaheer where at he should move to Arafat, reciting once again `Labbaik', Durood other rite on the way. As soon as Jabal-e-Rahmat appears he should increase the recitals (Labbaik, Durood, Dua) because this is the place and occasion of the acceptance of prayers.

On reaching Arafat he must no cause inconvenience to any one and sit at the place which he gets, except that he should sit at a place which is not the passage for others to move along. At noon he should take bath, it is Sunnate Muakkidah. If the bath is not possible, Wazu or ablution will be enough. As soon as the sun declines the Zenith, he must go to Masjid-e-Namrah and after offering sunnat prayer he should listen to the Khutba (Sermon) delivered by the Imam and offer the Zohar prayers behind the Imam. Immediately thereafter the Takbeer for the Asr prayer will be announced which prayer should be offered behind the Imam. There is no question of indulging in personal or other matters in between Zohar and Asr which is the period of intense devotion in hearty recitiors of Durood, dua or other prayers. There is no nafil or sunnat after Asr.

Immediately after the Asr prayers, he must hurry to the place of stay `Mauqif' where it is ordained that the pilgrims should proffer supplication to Allah alongwith Durood, Dua and other rites. On this day, staying at Mauqif and keeping oneself in prayers is the essence and spirit of the Hajj, which should continue after the Asr till sunset. It is also one of the cardinal part (ritual or Ruk'n) of the pilgrimage.

PROBLEM:- The time for Wuqoof is from the decline of the sun on the 9th Zil Hajj till the morning of 10th. If any one makes wuqoof at a time other than this, he will not gain the reward of the Hajj, unless it the wuqoof at other time is on account of difference of moon-sight.

He should go to MUZDALFAH immediately after the sunset in the company of the Imam. If the Imam delays his departures, the pilgrim should not wait for him and reach MUZDALFAH, reciting Labbaik, dua and Durood throughout the journey. If possible, he should with brisk paces. He may also avail any model of conveyance or transport. But he must down the transport as soon as MUZDALFAH comes to sight and cover the remaining distance on foot, Beller still is that he should enter MUZDALFAH after a bath (or Wazu). On entering MUZDALFAH he should recite the dua;

(O Allah! This is (the Place of) Gathering (of Ummah), so I beseech You the Forgiveness and security in the World and the Hereafter).

After reaching here he should a light, a little away from Jabal-e-Quzah (or Wherever inconvient). Here he should offer the combined Prayers of Maghrib and Isha, even if the time of Maghrib prayer has passed; both these prayers shall be offered as regular prayers (not Qaza, but `Ada' or in time) will clear Niyats for both. First the Farz of Maghrib, then immediately after the Farz of Asha, then the sunnat (prayers) of maghrib and Isha, then the wits of Isha.

After these Namaz (prayers) the rest of the night should be spent in Durood, Dua and Zikro Tasbeeh, because this is the most auspicious time and the most auspicious place for the acceptance of prayers in the Divine Presence.

The Morning Prayer (Namaz-e-Fajr_ should be offered at the early hours after the break of down when it is still dark (because the sun-rise is at least and hour later). After the Namaz-e-Fajr there is another Wuqoof preferably on the hills of Mash'aril Haraam it self or wherever the place is available down the skirt of the hill or the valley or any other place at the Muhassar. This wuqoof is similar to the wuqoot at Arafat, keeping oneself in constant recitation of Labbaik, Durood and Dua. The time of this wuqoof is from the break of the morning till is bright after the sun-rise. One who does not come here at this hour, he misses the Wuqoof.

Now when it is still for offering two rakats of namaz, he should go to Mina in the company of the Imam. At this place he should pick up seven small stones of the size of the date-seed, wash them three time and keep them in his pockets. Throughout the way he must continue reciting `Labbaik, Durood and*Dua'.

PROBLEM:-At Arfat there is one Azan and two Takbeers of Iqamat (arranging rows people for offering the salat or namaz) for the salats of Zohar and Asr, while at MUZDALFAH there is one Azan and one Takbeer (Iqamat) for Maghrib and Isha.

When he reaches the valley of Muhassar he should pass by very briskly, reciting this dua;

(O Allah! Do not Kill us with Your wrath and do not destroy us by Your affliction and grant us security before this).

When Mina comes to sight, he should recite this dua (which has already been quoted above)

(O Allah! This is Mina so grant me the Favor of Grace and peace

with which You have Favoured Your Friends).

On reaching Mina, before doing anything else, he must first

go to JAMRATUL AQABAH. He should stand at least 5 to 6 feet away


*: He should also recite this dua;

O Allah! Unto You I and I feel fear of Your Punishment and unto You I come back and I feel fright so accept my sacrifice and magnify my reward and have mercy at my humility and accept my repentance and grant my prayers.

from Jamra in such a way that he is at the central place (or in between) the Makkah Muazzama and the first Nala in the drain pipe and by holding a stone in his fore finger and the thumb and raising his arm high enough so that the while of the arm pit become visible throw the stone (at the Jamra, commonly known as Satan or Shaitan) while reciting the following dua;

(In the Name of Allah, Great is Allah, I strike Shaitan to please Rehman (the Most Beneficent). O Allah! make this as the Hajj-e-Mabroor and the Endeavor of Thankfulness and the Forgiveness of sins).

It is better that the stones strike of 3, 4 feet from the

1Jamrah. If the distance of the fall of the stone is move than this, it is not to be counted. In this way he must throw seven stone pieces, one by one. He should stop reciting `Labbaik' at the strike of the very first stone. When he finishes 2Rami (stoning the satan) he should not stay there any longer. He must return at once, reciting dua and rites.

After the Rami comes the stage of 3Sacrifice (Qurbani). Which he must perform. After this he must pray to Almighty Allah for the acceptances of Hajj by himself and those from all the muslims who have fulfilled the obligations in this behalf.

After the sacrifice, he should sit facing the Qibla (Kaba) and have his entire shaven (known as HALQ) or trim the hair (as he may desire), but shaving the head is more beneficial and blissful. But shaving of head is forbidden (Haram) for the women, they may just have their hair cut short by an inch or two. The cut shaven or trimmed hair should be buried, similarly thing which are usually removed from the person such as nail etc. should also be buried. Here he must take care not to clip the nail or shave the beard or most ache before the Halq (sharing of

head). Otherwise dam will become hinding. (Dam stands for an expiatory sacrifice of an animal for any lapse in the obligatory rites etc). However, there is no expiation or dam for shaving the beard and trimming the mostache after the shaving of head. Rather it mustahab or desirable, yet shaving/shortening of beard should is not he done as a respect for the beard in Islam while shaving the head (HALQ) first the hair on the right side should be cut, reciting "Allaho Akbar, Allaho Akbar Lailaha il lal Laho Wallho


1 Jamrah:In between Makkah and Mina there are three pillars known as Jamrah. The one which is near Mina is called`Jmarah the First (OOLA) the central one is known as Jamra Wasta (center) and the last one which is nearer Makkah is called Jamrat ul Aqabah.

2 Rami: The time for Rami is form the 10th morning to the morning of the 11th Zil Hij. However the sunnat is after the sunrise till the Decline (Zawal).

3 Sacrifice:This is not the Qurbani which is performed on the occasion of Baqrid. IT is by way of Thanks going on account of Haji. It is compulsory for the rich and Mustahab for the poor.

Allaaho Akbar, Allaaho Akbar,wa l\Lillaahil Hamd.

Often times during the Halq and also at the end, while having the head shaved this dua may also be recited,

(All praise is due to Allah on what he guided us and send reward to us and allowed us to fulfill the rites (etc). O Allah! This forehead of mine is in Your Hand, so make all my hairs a Noor (Divine Light) on the Day of Judgement, and remove evils from me and as a reward of it elevate my status in the lofty Paradise. O Allah! Bless me in my self and accept (endeavors) of mine.

O Allah! forgive me and those who have shaved their heads and trimmed their hairs, O with Vast Forgiveness).

And pray forgiveness for the entire Ummah. Now all things which were forbidden on account of Ahram, now become permissible except intercourse with wife (and lawful maid servants) to touch or look as them in a luscious manner or their private parts which are still haram or strictly un lawful.

Now after the hair-cut, it is better to reach Makkah on the 10th. For the Faze (obligatory) Tawaf, this Tawaf is the second rukn (ritual Obligation) of the Hajj. This Tawaf will be like the Tawaf of the first occasion, but ow there shall be no ISTABAA. After this two Rakats should be offered. Now the wives become permissible or all the essential processes have been fulfilled, declaring the completion of Hajj. This means that the Two main Arakan (plural of rukn, the essential part of performance) namely Woqoof and Tawaf have been accomplished.

But he has to turn to Mina to spend the 11th and 12th nights, it is sunnat, as it is sunnat to stay here during the 10th night. On the 11th after the Zohar prayer and the Khutba (sermon) of the Imam he should go for Rami. In these days, the Rami should begin with JAMRAH the First which is near the Masjid KHEEF. For this Rami he should come by climbing the mounds at Makkah and facing Qibla he should throw of stones as he has done in the First Rami on the 10th. After the 7th stone he should move a little of the Jumrah and facing Kaba he should raise hands for the prayers (dua) in a manner that the palms remain towards the Qibla and stay there for a time which may be needed for reciting twenty verses of the Holy Quran reciting praise to Allah (Hamd,) Durood and other dua.

Then he should move the central Jumrah or Jumrah Wasta for rami, dua and durood as before. Then finally he should go to the Jumrat ul Aqaba for rami, but he should not stay there, rather return promptly reciting Durood, Dua etc on the way on the 12th. Then on the 12th he should do Rami on the three *Jumrah and start -----------------------------------------------------------------

*PROBLEM:- For Rami, tees than seven stone pieces in not (P.T.O)

for Makkah to reach there before on the sun set. He may return, if he desires, on the 13th. If he does so he will have to do Rami on that (13th) day after the decline of sun (Zawal-e-Aftab). This is more bliss full. On the last day on the 12th or 13th when he returns from Mina on way to Makkah, he should get down from the carriage/animal at WADI MUHASSAB, which is situated near JANNAT UL MUALLA, (or without alighting) he should stay there for some time and pray for the departed souls. However it is more blissful if he stays here till Isha and offer all the prayers (Salat or Namaz) at He may have short sleep here, where after he should enter Makkah.

From 13th onwards he may at Makkah for as long as he desires, performing Umrah(s) and visiting Holy Places during his stay. When he wishes to leave Makkah he should do the Tawaf-e-Wida (Farewell) without Ramal. Farz Tawaf is also known as Tawaf-e-Ziarat and as well as Tawaf-e-Afazah.

PROBLEM:- The most suitable time for shaving the head or hair cut is the period known as Ayyam-e-Nah (Days of sacrifices) which means 10th, 11th and 12th of Zil Hajj, the most auspicious day is the 10th, if he does not have the hair cut by the 12th, then Dam will become necessary.

This Tawaf-e-Wida is compulsory for those coming from other places. After the Tawaf he should offer two rakat of Nafil, as usual, at Maqame-e-Ibrahim are drink water at the Zamzam well and pour it on his person. Then he should stand at the threshold of the Kaba, kiss it by way of respect and reverence and offer thanks to the Providence for enable him to perform Hajj and pray its acceptance expressing at the same time his desire to enable him to come and perform the pilgrimage again and again. His dua should all inclusive and for all. Or he may recite this prayer;

(The Beggar has come at Your door-steps, he begs Your Blessing and belief-full knowledge of You and entertains hope of Your Mercy (O Allah!)

Then he should come to MULTAZIM and holding the covering (ghilaf) of Kaaba and embracing it he should recite Zikr (remembrance of Allah), Durood and dua as much as he can and before departing he should recite comprehensive dua;

(All Praise id due to Allah Who guided unto this and we were not able to guide ourselves unless Allah guided us. O Allah! grant us -----------------------------------------------------------------

permissible. If he uses only three stones or does not use any stone at all, a penance by way of Dam will be necessary. If he uses only stones, then for each remains he will have to offer Sadaqah.

PROBLEM:- To pick up stones from near about Jumra, is Makrooh (detestable).

guidance as You have guided us for this and accept it as (endeavor) from us and do not make this as the last promise (to visit) for Your Sacred House (Bait il Haram) and grant me subsistence to return to it (again and again) so long as You are pleased, In the Name of Your Mercy, O the most Merciful of those who show mercy. And all Praise is due for Allah the Lord sustainer of (all) the worlds and Peace and grace of Allah be on Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his kin and his companions).

Then kiss the Hajar-e-Aswad and recite this invocation (dua) with all humility in heart and tears in the eyes;

(O Allah! the Provider of Felicity in His Land, I state witness (or give evidence) of You (Your Favors) and Allah is Sufficient as Witness. I give evidence (stand witness) by (the Faith) that there in no god but Allah and I also give evidence (asa witness) that Muhammad id The Apostle of Allah and I shall repeat and proclaim this evidence in the Presence of Allah the Most Dignified in the Day of Judgment, the Day of greatest mental distraction. O Allah I stand witness in Your (Your Name) on this (matter) and His great Angels state witness by this (truth). And Allah Peace and grace be on our Master and Chief (saiyad) Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him) and an progeny and companions all together).

Then retracing steps with and turning back towards Kaaba and should the pricients through the door of Masjid-e-Haram by placing the left foot our and reciting the usual dua is prescribed while leaving the masjid (at any place). It is better to come out through Bab ul Hazawarah (Note: while leaving the bidding farewell (Wide) to Kaaba Sharif on can also walk straight out of the

Masjid but he must bear the pangs of separation in his heart which he can express by turning face to Kaaba again and again which pacing out). Women in an unclean state due to Haiz (menstruation) and Nifas (Bleeding on account of child birth) must not go in, they should wait outside and last eyes of sadness and grief on the Kaaba as expressions of separation.

After coming out on the open he must distribute alms and charity among the beggars and destitutes who beg for help. Now his stay and fulfillment of Hajj obligatours are over. He has now to make preparations for journey to Madena ul Rasool SallAllaaho Alaihe wa AaliHii Wasallam.

Among the details mentioned in connection with the performance of Hajj, some aspects are Farz, and some are Wajib, while some are sunnat. If anything among the Farz is omitted by passed (for any reasons) then the Hajj itself is rendered invalid. If any Wajih is left over, the Hajj as a whole will not be affected but it will he incomplete and the DAM (sacrifice permitance) will become essential and the loss of sunnat will reduce the sawab (award) to some extent.

The following things are Farz (compulsory) in the Hajj.
1. Ahram.
2. Wuqoof-e-Arafah (stay at Arafat). Which (latter) means that in between the time from the decline of the sun in the 9th ZilHaj till the down of 10th, one must stay at the Arafat.
3. Tawaf: Ziarat's greater part or minimum found circuitous (phera) round should be spent in Tawaf.
4. Niyat or intent (details have gone earlier) by words of mouth.
5. Tarteeb (in serial order), performance of different ceremonies itual in the ordained manner. It means the first of all Ahram should be put on as without Ahram no Hajj (or Ummrah) is neither possible nor permissible, then wuqoof at Arafat, then Tawaf-e-Ziarat.
6. To perform all Farz strictly at the prescribed time limit (i.e. wuqoof, between 9th afternoon and 10th before the break down and Tawaf Ziarat after the wuqoof.
7. Place or Site: Wuqoof on the plains of Arafat (or adjourning areas in case of over crowding), Tawaf with the limits of Khana Kaaba.
In Hajj following things are wajib.
1. To put on Ahram form any of the prescribed Meeqats. One should move ahead of Meeqat without Ahram. It is however permissible if any one puts on Ahram before arriving at Meeqat.
2. Sa'ee (running between Safa and Marwa).
3. To begin Sa'ee from Safa.
4. To perform sa'ee on foot.
5. To do Tawaf before proceeding for Sa'ee.
6. If Arafa (staying at Arafat) is done during the day time, then he must stay there till the sun set and come darkness of night becomes visible.
7. It is wajib to begin wuqoof after the decline of sun at any part of the day.
8. To follow Imam on return from Arafat. However if the Imam for reason is late leaving Arafat, the pilgrim can start early.
9. To stay at Muzdalfah and offer Maghrib and Isha combined at Muzdalfah.
10.             Rami: To strike Jumrah on 10th, 11th and 12th which means on the 10th only at Jumratul Aqaba and strike stones on all three Jumrah, on 11th and 12th.
11.             Rami at Jumrah Aqaba on the first Day (10th) before the hair cut.
12.             To do rami on all days at the same time of each day.
13.             Hair cut (shaving of head) or shortening the hair on the Days of Nahr.
14.             Greats part of the Tawaf-e-Afaza in Days of sacrifice (Ayyam-e-Nahr).
15.             Tawaf after the Hateem by the right side, which means that Kaaba should be on left side of the man doing Tawaf.
16.             To do Tawaf on foot.
17.             While doing Tawaf one should he with wazu or ghus'l (ablution or bath). If he is without wazu or bath, he must start Tawaf afresh.
18.             To keep the shame parts of the body hidden while doing Tawaf.
19.             To offer two rakats of Namaz after the Tawaf. This is wajib but if not done, Dam will not be necessary, while for other wajib referred to above and those follow, dam is essential if any of these wajibs is omitted.
20.             There should order in Rami slaughtering the animal and Halq (head shave) and Tawaf one after the other.
21.             TAWAF-E-SADR or the Farewell (Wida) for all those who live beyond the territories of Meeqat.
22.             Ladies who are in Menses or in uncleanliness should wait till are purified. However in case of travel by caravan the affected can leave with the Tawaf-e-Wida in that state if the scheduled departure of the caravan is announced.
23.             There should be no cohabiting with wife after the Woquf-e-Arafa and before the hair cut, (Note: If during the Tawaf the shame parts become open, the Dam shall become binding.
In addition to these wajibs there are some more wajibs on the omission of which `dam' does not become binding.
These are:
(a) on account of some ailment etc not to have hair shave.

(b) not to delay the Namaze Maghrib till the time of Isha so that there be offered combinedly.

The following are sunnat in Hajj:
1. Tawaf-e-Qudoom (the First Tawaf which a non-resident of Arabia).
2. To begins Tawaf From the Hajar-e-Aswad.
3. To do ramal in Tawafe Qudoom or Tawafe Farz.
4. Sa'ee between the Safa and Marwa.
5. Delivering khutba by the Imam on these dates namely on the 7th in Makkah, on the 9th at Arafat and on the 11th in Mina.
6. To depart from Makkah after Fajr prayer, on the 8th, so that all the five prayers (namaz) could be offered at Mina.
7. To spend the night of 9th at Mina.
8. To proceed from Mina to Arafat after the sunrise
9. To have bath prior to going to Arafat for wuqoof.
10.             To stay at Muzdalfa after the return from Arafat.
11.             To start from Muzdalfa on way to Mina before the sun-rise.
12.             To spend both the night of 10th and 11th at Mina.
13.             If one stays at Mina till 13th then he should also stay in Mina in the night past the 12th.
14.             To alight or stay at the ABTAH in the valley of Muhassab, even if it be for a short while (There are other aspects of sunnat which we mentioned in the section titled procedure/Method).

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Saturday, July 30, 2016

Paying the Poor-due (Zakat)

Paying the Poor-due (Zakat)

The benefit of giving Zakat

Allah Ta'ala has stated that 'success is for those who give Zakat'. He has also stated 'Whatever you give, Allah will replace it with even more and Allah is the best at giving wealth'. He has also stated 'that those who are misers, then don't think that whatever Allah has given them due to His virtue that it is a good thing for them but it is a bad thing for them, because that item will be wrapped around their necks and a lock put on it for those who are tight with their money'.

Punishment and loss for not giving Zakat

Allah has also stated ' those who collect silver and gold and do not spend it in the path of Allah then they will be given severe punishment and give them the good news that when they are heated in the fire of Hell and with that their foreheads and sides and backs will be marked and they will be told that this is that gold and silver which you gained for your desire and so taste what you had gained'. The Holy Prophet SallAllaaho Alaihi wa aalihii Wasallam has reported that 'the goods that are destroyed, are destroyed due to not giving Zakat'. He has also reported' that 'strengthen your possession by giving Zakat and heal your sick by giving Sadqa and pray to deter any difficulties and cry and perform worship'. He has also reported that 'Allah Ta'ala has made four things obligatory and those who only perform three of them and miss one then it will be of no use to them until all four things are not performed. Namaz,Roza, Zakat and Hajj, and he stated that those who do not give Zakat, their Namaz is not accepted [Tibrani, Abu Da'ud, Imam Ahmad].
  • Rule: Zakat is Farz and those who reject it as Farz are infidels and those who do not give Zakat are wrongdoers and worthy of execution and those who delay and do not give Zakat on time are sinners and their testimony or oath will not be accepted [Alamgiri,Bahar]. According to Shariat, Zakat is defined as from your goods to take one part for Allah which has been fixed by Shariat and to make a Muslim poor person the owner of it.
  • Rule: To replace something is not giving Zakat, for example, to feed a poor person with the intention of giving Zakat as this would not be making the person the owner of the money. However, if food is given and whether he eats it or takes it with him then this will be counted as giving Zakat and in the same way if clothing is given with the intention of Zakat then the Zakat will be fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: It is also a condition to make someone the owner that knows how to accept, it, meaning if someone throws it away or is easily fooled into giving it away then this is not counted as making someone the owner, for example if a small child or an insane person is given Zakat then it will not count. If the child does not have sense then the Zakat should be given to his father who should also be poor and then should be made the keeper or the child's guardian or person looking after the child [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Conditions when Zakat would become necessary
  • Rule: There are a few conditions when Zakat would become necessary.
1. To be a Muslim

2. To be an adult

3. To be sane

4. To be free (i.e. not a slave)

5. To be the owner of goods above Nisaab (threshold-where Zakat would become necessary)

6. To be a complete owner of the goods

7. To be free from any sort of loan

8. To be free from any goods which are regarded as basic necessities of living

9. The good have a value which will increase

10. For a year to pass
  • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for an infidel. If an infidel became a Muslim then he would not be ordered to pay Zakat for goods from previous years when he was not a Muslim [All books].
  • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for a child [Hidava etc.].
  • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for a person who has been insane for a full year. If a person is sane at the beginning of the year and at the end of the year but was insane in the middle of then Zakat is still necessary. If a person is insane from birth and then after reaching adulthood he gains sanity then Zakat will become necessary from that year and not from the previous years [Johra, Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for possession of goods which are below the fixed threshold of Shariat, meaning if a person had goods but were less than the threshold of Nisaab then Zakat is not necessary for them.
  • Rule: You must have complete ownership of the goods, meaning if you had possession but was not an owner then Zakat is not necessary.
  • Rule: If goods are lost or have fallen in the sea or someone has robbed him and he has no witnesses for the robbery or have been buried in a field and you are not aware of where you have buried it or you gave some goods to a stranger for safe-keeping and then that person took off with them or you lent some money to someone and he refuses to pay the debt back and you have no witnesses and then after a period of time you got your goods or money back, then Zakat is not necessary for the time the goods were not in your possession [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If you have loaned some goods to a person who says he will pay back but is delaying it or has become bankrupt or a Qazi has ordered that he is poor or is refusing to pay back and he has witnesses and then when you recover the goods back, then Zakat is also necessary for the time when it was not in your possession [Tanwir, Bahar].
  • Rule: If money or goods have been given as a deposit or guarantee, then Zakat is not necessary on the person giving the deposit or the person keeping the deposit nor is it necessary for the years that it was held when the deposit has been given back [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
  • Rule: If a person has enough goods above the threshold of Nisaab but he owes so much that by paying the debt off he would go below the threshold of Nisaab then Zakat is not necessary on them whether the debt is of a worldly nature (such as a loan or repayment for lost goods or payment) or if it is of a religious nature (such as previous Zakats), for example, if a person has been above the threshold of Zakat for only one year and he has not given Zakat for two years then only the first year's Zakat is necessary not for the second year, because after giving the first year's Zakat from his goods the goods then fall below the threshold therefore the second year's Zakat is not necessary [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
A fixed time loan or Mehr does not stop you from giving Zakat
  • Rule: If you borrowed money and you did not have to pay anything until after a fixed time (for example, you borrowed some money and the owner said don't pay me anything for five years and then pay the money back to me) then this will not stop you from giving Zakat [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Also if the husband has to give so much money for Mehr, he still has to give Zakat because the wife does not ask for the Mehr [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: A loan will stop you from giving Zakat when the loan is taken before the Zakat became Wajib and if money is borrowed after Zakat is due, then you will still have to give Zakat (for example, your year has finished and you are due to give £500 Zakat and then you take out a loan which takes you below the Nisaab threshold, the £500 Zakat will still have to be paid) [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar).
Basic Necessities (Hajat-e-Asaliya)
  • Rule: Whatever goods are regarded as not the basic necessities and are above the threshold of Nisaab then Zakat is necessary. Hajat-e-Asaliya This means basic necessities that are required for living, such as, a house for living, clothes for wearing, goods for cooking and eating, animal/vehicle for transport, slave for helping, weapons for battle, tools for workmanship, books for knowledge and food stored for eating [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Zakat for three types of goods

The conclusion is that there are three types of goods which Zakat is necessary upon.

1. Gold and Silver.

2. Goods for business.

3. Animals which are kept for production and who eat on free range land.
  • Rule: Zakat is not necessary on pearls and diamonds and other jewellery (except gold and silver) regardless of the amount, however, if they are purchased with the intention of doing business then Zakat is necessary [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If a person has more than the threshold (Nisaab) and in the running year the goods increased then the new goods are not counted as a new year but when the year finishes for the old goods it will also finish for the new goods even if the new goods are acquired one minute before the year end.
  • Rule: When giving Zakat or separating money for Zakat it is necessary to make the intention of Zakat. Intention means if asked you can without doubt say it is Zakat [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If you gave money voluntary all year and then finally made the intention that whatever given was Zakat, then this will not count [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Zakat money was in your hand and the poor snatched it away then the Zakat will count and if it fell on the floor and a poor person picked it up and if you knew the person and was happy, then the Zakat will count [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Zakat money cannot be used in assisting the dead (buying Kafan, burial etc.) or for building a Masjid because this would not make the person the owner. If you want to spend money on things like helping the dead or building the Masjid then the method of doing this is to give the money to a poor person and then the poor person spends the money for these causes as this would mean both parties would gain reward. It is stated in the Hadith that if the money of Sadqa passes through one hundred hands then every person would gain as much reward as the first person who gave the money and there would be no decrease in the reward [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: It is not necessary when giving Zakat to say to the poor that this is Zakat as only the intention is sufficient. If you gave the Zakat buy saying that this is a gift for you or it is a present for your children or Eid money and the intention is that you are giving Zakat, then the Zakat will count. The reason for this is because there are many poor people that feel ashamsd in taking Zakat and therefore you should not tell them that you are giving Zakat to them [Bahar].
  • Rule: If a person with Nisaab decides to give more than his Nisaab calculation of Zakat by giving the amount for two or three Nisaabs beforehand, and then at the end of the year he finds out that he had to give more than just one Nisaab and he had already done this by giving money before it's due time then this will count. However, if he had given more than what was due from him with the intention for that year and then at the end of the year it was more than his Nisaab calculation was due then he cannot carry the excess amount to the next year (because the intention was for only to give that year) [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: If a person owns one thousand pounds but he decides to give Zakat for two thousand pounds and makes the intention that if I have that much amount at the end of the year then this Zakat will be for this year and if not then the excess money will go towards next year, then this is allowed [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: If you are in doubt that you have paid Zakat then you must pay again [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Siraajia, Behra-ul-Raiq].


Nisaab for Gold and Silver

The Nisaab (threshold) for gold is seven and a half Tola (88 grammes) and for silver it is fifty two and a half Tola (620 grammes). The Zakat for gold and silver is determined by it's weight and not it's value. For example, jewellery or utensils of gold is made but it's making makes the value of the gold more than 200 Dirhams (which may be the price of 7.5 tolas of gold). Also nowadays the value of 7.5 tolas of gold makes many Nisaabs when compared with the 52.5 tolas of silver and therefore the Nisaab will be calculated on weight and not on the value. In the same way by giving silver as Zakat for gold then the value will not be counted but the weight will be counted even if because of work and craftsmanship the value has increased. For example, if you had £700 worth of silver and you gave £25 for Zakat because although the jewellery was worth £700, it actually cost another £300, making the total £1000, then the Zakat would need only be £20 and the other £5 would be extra as the Zakat is given on the weight and not the total value.
  • Rule: When it is referring that the weight is taken into consideration and not the value then this is when the Zakat is being given for like to like product. Such as gold for gold or silver for silver and if another product is being given for another product, for example gold is being given as Zakat for silver or vice versa, then the value will be taken into consideration. [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

How much Zakat should be given ?
  • Rule: When you have enough gold or silver that goes above the Nisaab then one fortieth is given, i.e. 2.5%. Whether it be in it's original form or in the form of coins or something has been made out of it (such as jewellery, utensils, watch etc.) then Zakat is necessary on it. For example if you have 88 grammes of gold then 2.25 grammes of Zakat is necessary or if you have 620 grammes of silver then 15.75 grammes of silver is necessary for Zakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
  • Rule: Except for gold and silver you have other goods which are for business purposes then if the value of that adds to the same as the Nisaab for gold or silver then Zakat is necessary on that also, meaning the fortieth part of the goods is to be given for Zakat. If you did not have enough goods that reached upto the Nisaab level but you also had some gold or silver then they should be combined together and then if the total adds up to the Nisaab level then Zakat is necessary. The value of the goods should be calculated with the going currency of that county, for example in India the currency would be Rupees and for the UK it would be sterling. If gold or silver coins are used somewhere then it is upto you to use whichever coin you like. However, if you use Rupees and the Nisaab does not complete but by using an Ashrafi the Nisaab completes or vice-versa, or by using one currency the Nisaab completes but with another currency there is more than one-fifth of the Nisaab left-over then use the currency that gives more Nisaab left-over meaning one fifth more and do not use the other currency that does not add up to the extra Nisaab [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

Calculation for goods more than the Nisaab
  • Rule: If you have more goods than the Nisaab threshold and the extra is one fifth more then Zakat is necessary on this extra amount. For example, for silver after 620 grammes (which is the Nisaab), then you have to pay Zakat on every 124 grammes above the threshold as this is one fifth of the threshold and therefore an extra 3.15 grammes have to be given in Zakat. In the same way for gold after the Nisaab of 88 grammes you have to pay Zakat on every 17.6 grammes of gold which would mean an extra Zakat of 0.45 grammes. If the extra did not amount to an additional fifth then Zakat is not applicable on the extra amount, meaning if you had 105 grammes of gold then Zakat is only payable on the Nisaab which is 88 grammes and the rest would not be payable as it does not add up to one fifth and hence the Zakat on the extra 17 grammes is not payable and the same applies to silver and other goods or money [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
  • Rule: If you had both gold and silver and they both add up to the Nisaab separately then you cannot add the amount together'and give Zakat on the total amount (for example, you had 88 grammes of gold and 620 grammes of silver then you cannot add them both up to 708 grammes and then give Zakat on the amount as silver) but you have to give Zakat on them separately as separate items. Although if you wished you can pay the Zakat in one item (meaning if you wanted you could pay it all in gold) but you must pay it in the amount which would be better for the receiver and which is worth more.
  • Rule: If you have gold and silver but neither of them reach the threshold then calculate both of them and add them together and make either the gold Nisaab or the silver Nisaab. If then the Nisaab still does not complete then no Zakat is necessary. If the silver is converted to the value of gold or the gold is converted to the value of silver and then when mixed the Nisaab is completed, then Zakat is necessary and if silver makes the Nisaab and the gold does not then Zakat is necessary on silver. If both conversions make the Nisaab then it is upto you, to which you give Zakat for. However, if one conversion makes the Nisaab and exceeds another fifth of it then it is necessary to give Zakat on this conversion. For example, you had 300 grammes of silver and 60 grammes of gold, when you converted the gold value the Nisaab of silver completes but if you try it the other way then the Nisaab of gold does not complete, in which case it is necessary to give Zakat after converting it to the Nisaab value of silver. If the Nisaab value reaches both but the silver reaches the value of 756 grammes of silver (Nisaab plus one fifth) and the gold does not reach 105.6 grammes, then it is necessary to give Zakat on the value of the silver. In the same way if you had many Nisaabs and none of the extra was individually reaching, an extra fifth of the Nisaab, then add the extra amount of the Nisaabs together and then if it adds up to a fifth extra of one Nisaab then you have to give Zakat on this and if it does not reach to a fifth on any Nisaab then no Zakat is necessary on the extra amount [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
Zakat on Notes is also necessary
  • Rule: It is necessary to give Zakat on notes as this is the same as money [Bahar]. This means that Zakat is necessary on the amount equivalent to 620 grammes of silver or 88 grammes of gold or above as the same rules that apply to gold and silver will also apply here.
  • Rule: Zakat Is necessary on business goods that have been available for a year and the condition is that the value of the goods are not less than 200 Dirhams at the start of the year [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Pans that have been loaned out do not need Zakat paid on them and in the same way a house that has been rented out do not need Zakat paying on it [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].


Definition of Saima

Zakat is necessary on three types of animals that are Saima, i.e. camels, cows and goats. Saima is those animals who spend most of the year grazing and their purpose is to gain milk or their young or just to keep [Tanweer, Bahar]. If hay or grass is brought to them in your home or the animals are used to shift loads or carry loads or are used for travelling on, then even if they graze, they are not Saima and their Zakat is not necessary. In the same way if they are kept to eat meat then Zakat is not necessary even if the animal grazes in the wild. If the animal is for sale and is kept to graze, then this is also not Saima, however, the value is to be calculated as business goods and the Zakat is to be given as normal [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

Zakat on Camels

Zakat is not necessary on less than five camels. When you have five or more than five but less than twenty-five, then on every five camels one goat is given as Zakat. Therefore if you have five then one goat is to be given and if you have ten then two are given etc etc [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: The goat that is given in Zakat is not to be less than one year old. The goat can be male or female, the choice is yours [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you have more than one Nisaab but less than two Nisaabs (more than five but less than ten) then Zakat on the extra amount is forgiven and is not necessary, meaning if you had seven or eight then only the one goat is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: If you have twenty-five camels then one small camel is given that is more than one year old and less than two years old, the same rule applies to upto thirty-five camels, meaning one small camel. If you have between thirty-six and upto forty-five then one camel more than two year's old is to be given. If you have between forty-six and upto sixty then one camel that is more than three year's old. If you have between sixty-one and upto seventy-five then one camel that is more than four year's old is to be given. If you have between seventy-six and upto ninety then two camels that are older than one year's old are to be given as Zakat. If you have between ninety one and upto one-hundred and twenty then you must give two camels older than two year's old. For more than one hundred and twenty upto one hundred and forty five then you must give two camels older than three year's old and one goat for every five extra. For example, if you have one hundred and twenty five then you give two camels (older than three year's old) and one goat, the same amount of camels are given for one hundred and thirty but two goats etc. Then if you have one hundred and fifty then give three camels (older than three years old).
Zakat on Cattle
  • Rule: If you have less than thirty cows then Zakat is not necessary. When you have thirty then the Zakat is one calf older than one year. If you have forty then the Zakat is one calf older than two year's old. This rule applies to upto fifty nine cattle. On sixty cattle the Zakat is two calves older than two year's old. Then the rule is on every thirty one calf one year old and on every forty one calf two year's old. For example on seventy you would give two calves one calf that is one year old and one calf that is two year's old. For eighty you would give two calves that are both two year's old etc.etc.
  • Rule: The same rule applies to cows and buffaloes and if you have a mixture, then they would be added together. For example, if you have ten cows and twenty buffaloes then Zakat would have to be given. The Zakat given is the calf of the animal that there is more in quantity, e.g. if you have more cows than buffaloes then a calf of a cow would be given. If the amount is equal then the calf of the animal is given that is worth more in value [Alamgiri].
Zakat on Sheep and Goats

If you have less than forty sheep or goats then Zakat is not necessary. Between forty and one hundred and twenty then you would give one goat or sheep, meaning regardless of the quantity between this figure, only one goat is sufficient. Two goats are given for the quantity between one-hundred and twenty one and two hundred. Then upto between 201 and 300, three goats are to be given. Between 301 to 400, four goats are given in Zakat. Then for every hundred extra one extra goat is given and for any goats that are between the hundred mark, then there is no extra Zakat.
  • Rule: The choice is yours as to whether you give a male or female, however it is necessary that the animal is not younger than one year old. If this is the case then the value of a one year old goat would have to be given [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. Lamb, sheep or goat are all regarded as the same and if you do not have a complete set of one kind then they are to be mixed together and you can give sheep or lamb in Zakat but they must be older than one year [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. If someone has a mixture of camels, cattle and goats but none complete their individual Nisaabs then there is no need to add them together and Zakat is not necessary.
  • Rule: If you have horses, donkeys or mules then even if they are for grazing they are not Saima. If they are for business then they would be treated as business stock and one fortieth is to be given on their value.


Which ground is regarded as Ushr (one tenth) and as Nisf Ushr (One twentieth) ?

The Holy Prophet SallAllaaho Alaihi wa aalihii Wassallam has stated that the ground that has rainfall falling on it or has a stream of water wetting the ground or is looked after by water from a river or stream then it has to be given in Ushr (one tenth of the crops to be given to charity) and the ground that has to be given water where the water is brought to the ground on an animal etc. then that has to be given as Nisf Ushr (one twentieth of the crops to be given) [Bukhari etc.].
  • Rule: The farming ground that is watered by rainwater or from a stream then Ushr has to be given i.e. one tenth of the crops have to be given. If the farming ground is watered for some days by natural water and some days from brought water in buckets etc. then if more of the days is used using the natural water and a few days from water in buckets then Ushr is Wajib, otherwise Nisf Ushr [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: Land that has been given on rent for farming then the Ushr is upon the farmer to give [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If Ushr land has been divided between the cultivator and the landlord then the Ushr has to be paid by both of them. If the land is a taxable source then the tax has to be paid by the landowner [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Different types of land

Rule: There are three types of land;

1. Ushri

2. Taxable (Khiraji)

3. Non Ushri and non taxable.

It is necessary to give tax on land that is taxable. It is necessary to give Ushr on land that is Ushri or land that is non Ushri and non taxable. Ushri land is that land where it is necessary to give Ushr, meaning whatever grows one tenth of it and taxable land is that land where tax has to be given, meaning that much tax which the king of Islam has fixed, whether it be fixed as a percentage of the crops e.g. one quarter or one third or half or a fixed amount e.g. ten or twenty rupees per acre or something similar to what Hazrat Umar Farooque had fixed.
  • Rule: If you are aware of what the railing Islamic sultanate has fixed then give that much as long as it is not more that what is fixed in the Hadith by Hazrat Umar Farooque, and where there is no fixed amount mentioned in the Hadith then no more than half of the crops are to be given and it is also a condition that the land is capable of growing the crops [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you are hot aware of what the Islamic Sultanate has fixed then give what has been fixed by Hazrat Umar Farooque and if this is not known then give half [Fatawa-e-Razvia].
  • Rule: Where there is no Islamic Sultanate then people there should themselves spend on the poor and needy and those who themselves have to rely on tax [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: The land in India is not regarded as taxable unless a particular land is proven to be taxable according to Shariat [Bahar-e-Shariat].
For whom and for what is Ushr necessary ?
  • Rule: It is not a condition to be an adult or to be sane for Ushr to be necessary. Whatever grows on land which is owned by a child or an insane person has to be still given Ushr [Alamgiri, Bahar]. If the person whom Ushr is necessary upon dies and the cultivator is present then the Ushr will be taken off him [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: It is not a condition for Ushr that a whole year has to pass, in fact if in one year in one piece of land crops have grown many times then Ushr has to be given every time [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Nisaab is not a condition for Ushr, if even on Sa'a is grown the Ushr must be given [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If honey is made on Ushri land or on mountains or in the wild then Ushr is necessary on it and in the same way Ushr is necessary on honey that is taken from flowers from the mountains or from the wild, the only condition is that the king of Islam has made necessary precautions for that honey to be protected from poachers, thieves or robbers, otherwise it is not necessary to give Ushr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Ushr is necessary on wheat, barley, corn, oat, rice and all types of linseed, safflower, walnuts, nuts and all types of fruit, cotton, flowers, sugarcane, melon, watermelon, eggplants and all types of vegetables whether a little or a lot has been grown [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Whatever grows in a house or mausoleum (shrine) is neither Ushri or taxable [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]
Land that qualifies as Ushri or Taxable (Khiraji)
  • Rule: If a Muslim has made a garden in their house and gives Ushri water to it then the land is regarded as Ushr and if taxable water is given then the land is regarded as taxable. If both types of water is given then the land is regarded as Ushri. If a settler (non Muslim) has made a garden in his house then the necessary tax will be taken. Water from the skies, a well, streams, sea etc. is all regarded as Ushri water. If a pool is dug by immigrants then that is regarded as taxable. If infidels had dug a well and it is now in the hands of Muslims or it was dug on taxable land then the water is taxable (Khiraji) [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: There are many ways a land is regarded as Ushri, for example, if Muslims won the battle and the land was distributed between the Mujahideens or the landowners themselves converted to Islam. A battle did not occur and some land which was not being used was next to some Ushri land that was taken into farming or that land was given some Ushri water, all the above conditions means that the land is Ushri, there are also other reasons which make the land Ushri and you will find these in larger books.
  • Rule: There are many ways where land is also regarded as taxable (Khiraji), for example, Muslims won the battle and gave that land to the inhabitants as a favour or gave it to other infidels or that country came into a peace agreement with Muslims , or an immigrant bought Ushri land off Muslims or used Khiraji water on Ushri land then in all these cases the land will be regarded as Khiraji. There are also other reasons where land is regarded as Khiraji.
  • Rule: If Khiraji land is watered with Ushri water, the land will still remain as taxable.
  • Rule: The land that is not regarded as Ushri or Khiraji is for example, land that has been won in battle by Muslims and is kept until the day of judgement by Muslims or the owner of a piece of land dies and the land is given in Bait-ul-maal, then in these situations the land is not Ushri nor taxable.
Tax is not counted by giving it to the government -Where can tax (Khiraj) be given ?
  • Rule: The money that is given to the government for day to day living cannot be counted as Khiraj tax. The tax will remain the responsibility of the owner and it is necessary to give it. The tax is hot only given to the soldiers of Islam but all Muslims, where there is a Masjid being built or for the running of the Masjid or for the salary of the Imam or Mo'azzin or for the students learning Islamic knowledge or for the assistance of the scholars of Islam. Those scholars that give speeches and assist in teaching scholars of Islam and those scholars that remain busy in writing fatawas and for causes such as building bridges or roads etc. tax can be given to all the above reasons [Fatawa-e-Razvia].


Who is a poor person and is defined as a pauper
  • Rule: There are seven types of people who can accept Zakat;

    1. Faqir - poor person

    2. Misqueen - Beggar 3 Aamil (Designated Person)

    3. Aamil (Designated Person)

    4. Riqab - Slave

    5. Gharim - Person in debt

    6. Fee-Sabeelillah - Spent in the path of Allah

    7. Abn-isabeel - Traveller
  • Rule: A Faqir is a person who has some property but not enough to make the qualifying threshold known as Nisaab or he has enough to fulfil the Nisaab but some of or all of the property is part of his basic necessities, such as a house to live in and clothes to wear and servants for his care and tools for his profession, then regardless of how expensive they are, they are not counted in Nisaab and if his savings do no total the Nisaab or he has savings but he is in debt and when his debt is calculated it takes his savings below the Nisaab threshold, then this person is regarded as a poor person [Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.]. Rule: A Misqueen is a person who has nothing and is desperate even for shelter or for clothing to cover his body and has to resort to begging. Rule: It is allowed for a Misqueen to beg and it is not allowed for a Faqir to beg. This is because if a person has enough for food or clothing to cover themselves then it is Haram for a person to beg [AlamgiriJ. Rule: An Aamil is a person who has been designated by the leader of Islam to collect money from people for Zakat. He should be given enough so that his and his helpers expense can be fulfilled whilst collecting the Zakat money. He should not be given so much that whatever he has collected, his expense is more than half that amount [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Rule: Riqab means to give money to a slave so that with this money he can free himself from his master and become a free man.
  • Rule: Gharim means a person who has so much debt, that by paying it off he would not have enough left to fulfil the Nisaab [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  • Rule: Fee-Sabeelillah means to spend in the path of Allah. There are many ways this can be done. If a person wishes to go to Jihad (battle for Islam) and he does not have the necessary means for weapons and goods then he can be given Zakat, even if he has the power to earn the money. If a person wishes to perform Hajj and he does not have the means to do this then he can be Zakat to perform Hajj, however, it is not allowed for him to ask or beg for the money. If a student who is studying religion can be given Zakat and this student can even ask or beg for the money when he has specifically reserved himself for the learning of Islamic knowledge, even if he has the power to earn the money In the same way, Zakat can be spent in all pious activities where the condition is that the person taking the Zakat will become the owner of the money, if the intention is not to make the person the owner then Zakat will not be fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: There are many people who send their Zakat money to poor Madressas, they should make sure that they tell the trustees of the Madressa that this money is Zakat money, so that the Trustees can keep the money separate and spend it on the poor children who are studying, otherwise if they are unaware then they may spend the money on other causes, whereby the Zakat will not be fulfilled [Bahar-e-Shariat]. Ibn-e-Sabeel means a person who is travelling and his money has finished then he can take Zakat, even if he has goods or money at home, however, he can only take so much that his needs can be fulfilled and not more as this would not be allowed.
  • Rule: It is necessary when giving Zakat that the person whom Zakat is being given to is made the unconditional owner and not just the keeper. Therefore, to spend Zakat money or goods on a Masjid or to buy a Kafan (shroud) for a deceased person or to pay off a debt of a deceased person or to free his slave or to make a pathway, road, bridge etc. or to have dug a well or stream for water or to buy books and then give them away is all not sufficient and Zakat would not be fulfilled by doing this until you make a Faqir the owner of the Zakat money, however, when the Faqir becomes the owner of the goods or money, he can then spend the money in these causes if he wishes [Johra. Tanveer, Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: You cannot give Zakat to your immediate parents or grandparents (maternal or paternal) i.e. whom we are children of and nor can you give Zakat to your children or grandchildren. In the same way you cannot give them Sadqah, Fitra, Kaffara or Nazr. As far as Voluntary Sadqah is concerned then this can be given and in fact it is better to give them this [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: Zakat can be given to the daughter-in-law or son-in law or to your stepmother or stepfather or you wife's children (from a previous marriage) or your husband's children. You can give Zakat to any of your relatives for whom you are responsible for their maintenance as long as you do not include the money into the maintenance account [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. A wife cannot give Zakat to her husband nor can a husband give Zakat to his wife. However, if a man divorces his wife and he can then give her Zakat after the iddat (probationary period) is over [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: You can give Zakat to the wife of a rich person as long as she is not the owner of Nisaab and the same applies to a rich person's father if he is a Faqir [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: You cannot give Zakat to a rich man's non adult children, however, if a rich man's children are adults and they are a Faqir, then you can give them Zakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If a person after basic necessities is the owner of Nisaab, then he cannot be given Zakat. Meaning after the basic necessities he has enough goods or money that totals to two hundred Dirhams (Approx. £400). Even if Zakat is not necessary on this amount, i.e. if a person has six tolas (70 grammes) of gold then this does not complete the Nisaab to give Zakat as the Nisaab is 88 grammes to give Zakat, but this person cannot be given Zakat money. Also for example, if a person has twenty cattle and this totals two hundred Dirhams then this person cannot be given Zakat, even though Zakat does not become necessary on twenty cows.
  • Rule: A house, food to eat, clothing to wear, a servant, animal or vehicle for travelling, tools for working, books for a student which are being used for his study are all regarded as goods for basic necessities.
  • Rule: A healthy person can be given Zakat even if he has the strength to earn money, although he cannot beg for money [Alamgiri]
  • Rule: If a person has diamonds or pearls and they are not for business use then it is not necessary to give Zakat on them, although if they reach the Nisaab threshold then the owner cannot take Zakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
  • Rule: You cannot give Zakat to people belonging to the BaniHashim family. BaniHashim family means children of Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Ja'far, Hazrat Aqueel, Hazrat Abbas, Hazrat HarisIbne Matlab [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc].
  • Rule: If the mother is Hashmi or a Sayyeda and the father is not a Hashmi then they are not regarded as Hashmi, because according to Shariat the family tree (Nasab) is from the male and therefore they can be given Zakat as long as they qualify for Zakat [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: Voluntary Sadqa and Lillah can be given to Bani Hashim [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: An immigrant infidel (Zimmi) cannot be given any Zakat or Sadqa Wajiba (such as Nazr, Kaffara, Sadqa, Fitr) and it is not allowed to give any type of Sadqa to an infidel visitor even if the visitor has gained permission to enter the Islamic country by the authorities (visa) and they cannot even be given any voluntary Sadqa such as a gift, money etc. Although India is a place where Islam is recognised (Daar-ul-lslam), the infidels in India are not immigrants (Zimmi) and they cannot be given even voluntary money as this is not allowed [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: Whatever people that qualify for taking Zakat that has been mentioned, the condition has to be that they all must be Faqirs except for an Aamil as they do not need to be a Faqir to qualify for taking Zakat and the other exception is Ibn-e-Sabeel as even if they are rich they are regarded as a Faqir when they are on a journey and they run out of funds. Except for these two, no other person can be given Zakat unless they are a Faqir [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
Who should be given preference when giving Zakat
  • Rule: It is better when giving Zakat, Sadaqa etc. that it should be given to your own brothers and sisters, then to their children, then to your paternal uncles and aunts and then to their children, then to your maternal uncles and aunts and then to their children and then to people living in your home village or town [Johra, Alamgiri etc.]. It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that Allah Ta'ala does not accept those people's Sadaqat whose relatives are in need of it and they give the money to others [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: It is not allowed to give Zakat to Bad Mazhabs i.e. people who belong to a wrong sect [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. In the same way it is not allowed to give Zakat to those renegades who claim to be Muslims from their mouths but lower the dignity of Allah and His beloved Prophet or reject other obligatory beliefs of Islam [Bahar etc.].

Who can beg or ask for financial help
  • Rule: That person who has food for today or has the strength to go out and earn then it is not allowed for him to beg and if someone gives him food or money without him asking for it then he is allowed to take it. If a person has food but does not have clothes to wear then he can beg for them. If a person is going or is involved in Jihad or is a student learning Islamic knowledge then they can beg for assistance even though they may be healthy enough to earn for themselves. Just as it not allowed for people to beg, it is not allowed for people to give them aid when they beg for it as the giver will also be committing a sin [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Begging is a degrading act
  • Rule: To beg is a very degrading act and should not be done unless it is absolute necessary. It is proven in Hadiths that to beg without necessity is Haram and the person begging is eating Haram food [Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Nisaa'ee etc.]. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that 'those who wish to refrain from begging, then Allah will protect them from begging, and those who wish to become rich, then Allah will make them rich and those who wish to be patient then Allah will give them patience [Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi etc.]. It has also be reported that the person who opens the door to begging then Allah opens the door of need for him [Ahmad, Tibrani]. The Holy Prophet has also stated that 'those who beg and they have enough to satisfy them then they are wanting fire as the extra, people asked how much is the amount where a person cannot beg, the Holy Prophet replied 'food for morning and night' [Abu Da'ud, Ibn-e-Hubaan, Ibn-e-Khuzaima].


The Holy Prophet SallAllaaho Alaihi wa AaliHii Wasallam has stated that ' a servant's fast remains stuck between the earth and sky until he gives Sadaqa-e-Fitra [Delami, Khateeb, Ibn-e-AsaakarJ.
  • Rule: Sadaqa -e-Fitr is Wajib and the time to give it is the whole lifetime, meaning if you have not given it then give it now as the responsibility will not go away until it is given and when giving it, it will not count as Qaza, but will remain as Adaa, even though it is Sunnat to give it before the Eid Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
  • Rule: The Sadaqa-e-Fitr becomes Wajib on Eid morning from the break of dawn, and therefore if a person dies before the break of dawn on Eid day or becomes a Faqir then the Sadaqa will not become Wajib for them [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: After the dawn has broken on Eid day then a child is born or an infidel becomes a Muslim or a Faqir becomes rich then the Sadaqa-e-Fitr does not become Wajib for them [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If before the dawn has broken on Eid day a child is born or an infidel becomes a Muslim or a Faqir becomes rich then Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Wajib upon them [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If a person dies after dawn has broken then Sadaqa-e-Fitr becomes Wajib upon them [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Wajib upon all Muslims who are free (not a slave) and are the owners of Nisaab (i.e. additional to the basic necessities), in this to be sane and be an adult is not a condition nor is it a condition for the goods or money to be within your possession for over a year [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
Whose Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Waiib upon who ?
  • Rule: It is Wajib on a man who is the owner of Nisaab to give Sadqa-e-Fitr for himself and for his children, as long as the children are not the owner of Nisaab themselves and if they are then the Sadqa for them will have to be given from their goods. It is Wajib to give Sadqa of a mental child even when they reach adulthood upon the father as long as the child is not the owner of Nisaab themselves, and if they are the owner of Nisaab then the Sadqa will be given from their goods [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: For the Sadqa-e-Fitr to become Wajib it is not necessary that you have to fast, therefore if a person does not fast due to a religious exemption such as on a journey or illness or old age or may Allah protect for a non valid reason a person misses a fast or all fasts then the Sadqa-e-Fitr is still Wajib upon them [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If there is no father then the grandfather (paternal) is the guardian and therefore it is Wajib on them to give the Sadqa-e-Fitr on behalf of their grandchildren.
  • Rule: A man is not responsible for the Sadqa-e-Fitr of their wife or adult children even if they are physically disabled, even if he is responsible for their maintenance [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
Quantity of Sadqa-e-Fitr

The quantity of Sadqa-e-Fitr is half a Sa'a of wheat or it's flour or instead of this half a Sa'a of it's mixture with barley, or one Sa'a of dates or raisins or barley or it's flour or instead of this one Sa'a of it's mixture [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri etc.}. Rule: It is better to give the flour of wheat or barley rather than the grains and it is better than that to give the monetary value, whether you give the value of wheat, barley or dates. However, during a price war or famine it is better to give the goods than money. If money is given for bad wheat then subsidise the rest of the money with the money of good wheat [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

The weight of a Sa 'a

After great study and analysis it is suggested that the price at present (however, this can increase) two pounds and fifty pence (£2.50) The price of half a Sa'a is one pound and twenty five pence (£1.25). One Sa'a is four pounds and six and a half ounces (4lb, 6.5ozl and half a Sa'a is two pounds and three and a quarter ounces (2lb 3 25 ozi For the sake of ease it is better to give four and a half pounds of (4 5lb) barley or dates or two and a quarter pounds (2.25lb) of wheat for each person as Sadqa-e-Fitr.

Who should be given Sadqa-e-Fitr ?
The same people qualify for giving Sadqa-e-Fitr as those who qualify for giving Zakat to except for an Aamil An Aamil can be given Zakat but not Sadqa-e-Fitr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. 


Definition of Qurbani

Qurbani is a worship with goods and is Wajib upon every rich person. To sacrifice a specific animal on a specific day for the sake of Allah for the intention to gain reward is called a Qurbani. Qurbani is Wajib upon every Muslim who is not a traveller and is the owner of Nisaab and is a free person.

Who is Qurbani Wajib upon ?

Rule: Just as Qurbani is Wajib upon all males it is also Wajib upon all females [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc].

Rule: Qurbani is not Wajib upon a traveller, however, if he wishes to perform it voluntarily, then he can do so and will gain reward [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc]. The owner of Nisaab means to have as much goods in addition to the basic necessities an amount of two hundred Dirhams (approx. £300-£400) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, etc.]. 

Rule: Whoever has two hundred Dirhams or twenty Dinars in addition to the basic necessities or is the owner of goods that equal to two hundred Dirhams etc. then according to Shariat that person is rich and Qurbani is Wajib upon them [Alamgiri etc.].

Time of Qurhani

The time of Qurbani is from the break of dawn of the 10th of Zil Hajj to sunset on the 12"1 of Zil Hajj, meaning three days and two nights. However, it is better to perform it in the morning of the 10"1, then 11th, then 12th.
  • Rule: If the Qurbani is performed in a city then the condition is that it is performed after the Eid Namaz and because there is no Eid Namaz in villages and outskirts then it can be performed after the break of dawn.
  • Rule: It is necessary to perform Qurbani at the time of Qurbani, therefore, if that much money or the same amount of goods to the value of an animal is given then the responsibility of Qurbani will not be fulfilled [Alamgiri etc.].
  • Rule: If the time of Qurbani has passed then a Qurbani can no longer be performed and if you had purchased an animal for Qurbani then give it as Sadqa or give the amount of money equivalent to the value of a goat as Sadqa [Darr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, etc.]

Rules of Qurbani

Once the conditions of Qurbani are fulfilled (as mentioned above), then to sacrifice one goat or sheep or lamb or one seventh of a camel, cow, buffalo is Wajib and no less than this can be performed. If a person's share of a large animal is less than one seventh then their share of the Qurbani will not count (meaning, if eight people are jointly sacrificing one large animal then only seven of these people's Qurbani will count). If there are less than seven people jointly performing Qurbani and the parts divided are equal to at least one seventh per person then the Qurbani will count.
  • Rule: Every person that is jointly performing Qurbani have to make the htention that they are doing it to gain reward and not just to gain the meat and therefore a person wanting to perform an Aqueeqa can also join in as this is done to gain reward [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Method of performing Qurbani
The animal that is going to be sacrificed should be fed and given water. The knife that is going to be used should be sharpened beforehand, but not in front of the animal. The animal should be laid on it's left side with it's face pointing towards the Qibla and the person slaughtering the animal should put their right foot on the animal and quickly slaughter the animal using a sharp knife. Before slaughtering the animal, this Dua should be prayed;

"Inni Wajjahto Waj'hiya Lillazi Fataras Samaawaat'e Wal'arda Hanifaw Wamaa Anaa Minal Mushrikeena, inna Salaati Wa Nusooki Wa Mah'Yaaya Wa Ma'maati Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen. Laa Shareeka Lahu Wa Bizaalika Umirtu Wa Anaa Minal Muslimeena Allahumma Laka Waminka Bismillahi Allahu Akbar".

As soon as you finish praying the Dua, start cutting with the knife. If the Qurbani is from yourself then after slaughtering pray this Dua;

"Allahumma Taqabbal Minni Kamaa Taqabbalta Min Khaleelika Ibraheema Alaihis Salaam Wa Habeebika Muhammadin Sallalaho Alaihi Wasallam"

When slaughtering cut all four veins (in the throat) or at least three veins and so that the knife reaches the back of the throat and it should not be cut more than that as it would cause unnecessary pain for the animal. As soon as the animal goes cold then cut the feet and take off the skin. If you have slaughtered the animal on behalf of someone then at the point where you pray "Minni" pray "Min Falaa" (meaning their name). If the animal is bought jointly and there are more than one person involved in the partnership of the animal such as a cow, camel, buffalo etc. then all their names should be said in place of 'Falaa'.
  • Rule: If someone else is performing the slaughter for you then it is better to be present.
Rules of meat and the skin

If the animal is bought jointly then the meat should be weighed and equally distributed. It should not be divided roughly because if it is divided un-equally then even if the person receiving less, forgives them it will not be forgiven as the right is as per Shariat [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Then split your share into three parts and give one third to the poor as Sadqa, one third to your relatives and one third for yourself and eat the meat yourself and give some to your wife and children. If you have a lot of children and a large family then you can keep all the meat for yourself and if you so wish you can give all of it to Sadqa, however, it is better to keep one part of yourself.
  • Rule: If you have performed a Qurbani on behalf of a deceased person then the rule of the meat is the same, however, if the deceased had requested for the Qurbani then give all the meat away as Sadqa.
  • Rule: If the Qurbani is from a deceased person then the meat cannot be eaten by yourself nor Can it be given to a rich person, but it is Wajib to give all the meat away as Sadqa [Bahar].
  • Rule: It is Mustahhab for the person performing the Qurbani to eat the Qurbani meat as the first food of the day [Barraur-Raiq].
  • Rule: The meat of the Qurbani should not be given to infidels.
  • Rule: The animal's skin, reins, saddle etc. should all be given in Sadqa. You can use the skin for yourself and make something out of it e.g. a leather bag or a mat for praying Namaz on. However, you cannot sell the skin and use the money for yourself, if this is done then the money has to be given as Sadqa [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: Nowadays people usually give the skins to Madressas, this is allowed and if you sell the skin with the intention to give the money to the Madressa then this is also allowed [Alamgiri, Bahar].
  • Rule: The meat of the Qurbani cannot be given to the person performing the Qurbani or skinning the animal as labour or salary. If however, you give it as a gift as you would do to friends then this is acceptable, but you cannot include it as a form of payment for his work [Hidaya etc.]. Rule: There are many places where the skin is given to the Imam. This should not be given as part of his salary but can be given as a gift or assistance [Bahar-e-Shariat].
Which animals can be used for Qurbani
Animals for Qurbani - Camel, cow, buffalo, goat, ewe (male or female), eunuch, large eunuch can all be used for Qurbani [Alamgiri].
  • Rule: Wild animals such as deer, white antelope, reindeer cannot be used to perform Qurbani. Rule: A sheep or lamb are included in the eunuch category.
Age of a Qurbani Animal
  • Rule: A camel must be at least five years old, a buffalo must be at least two years old and a sheep or lamb or goat at least a year old. If they are younger than this then the Qurbani will not count. However, if a lamb or a eunuch's young is so big at six months that by looking at it from a distance it looks to be a year old then it can be used for Qurbani [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
What should a Qurbani Animal be like ?
  • Rule: A Qurbani animal should be big and healthy and should not have any faults. If there is a small fault with the animal then the Qurbani will count but is Makrooh and if there is a big fault then the Qurbani will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar. Alamgiri]. Rule: If a bull has no horns from birth then it is allowed and if the horns have been broken upto the root then it is not allowed to use it for Qurbani and if they are a little broken then it is allowed [Alamgiri, etc.]. Rule: A blind, lame, cross-eyed, mad, cut-ears, cut-tailed, toothless, cut-teats, dried teats, cut nosed, deaf from birth, a hermaphrodite (where an animal's both sexual organ's exist), an animal that only eats impurities then all of these animals cannot be used for Qurbani [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
  • Rule: If the illness is small and the lameness is not that bad so that the animal can walk upto the slaughter-house or the ears, nose etc. are less than a third cut then the animal can be used for Qurbani [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Alamgiri].
  • Rule: If when performing the Qurbani the animal jumped and shook and due to this it became faulty then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  • Rule: If you performed a Qurbani and found that there is a live born inside then that should also be slaughtered and can be made use of, and if the young inside is dead then it should be thrown away [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  • Rule: If after purchasing and before the Qurbani the animal give birth then the new-born should also be slaughtered and if it is sold then the money should be given away as Sadqa and if it is not slaughtered before the Qurbani then give it away live as Sadqa [Alamgiri, Bahar].
NOTICE: Just look at our master and king the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustapha Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam's big heart and concern that he made a Qurbani on behalf of his Ummat and thought of us, therefore, if a Muslim can then they should perform an additional Qurbani on behalf of the Holy Prophet then it would be a very good and fortunate act [Bahar-e-Shariat].


Definition of Aqueeqa

Due to the happiness of when a child is born, the animal that is slaughtered is known as an Aqueeqa.

When should an Aqueeqa be performed
  • Rule: An Aqueeqa is Mustahhab and it is better to perform it on the seventh day. If it cannot be performed on the seventh day then perform it whenever possible and the Sunnat will be fulfilled.
  • Rule: Two goats should be slaughtered for a son and one goat for a daughter, also a male animal for the boy and a female animal for the girl, if however, if this is vice-versa then it is also accepted. If you cannot afford to slaughter two then for the boy one female goat would also do.
  • Rule: If you slaughter a cow or a buffalo then for the boy you would specify two parts and for the girl one part. Rule: You can mix parts of Aqueeqa with a Qurbani animal. The same conditions apply for an Aqueeqa animal as for the Qurbani animal.
What should be done with the Aqueeqa meat ?
  • Rule: The meat of the Aqueeqa should be given to the poor, friends and relatives raw or cooked, or it can be served as a meal and all the people invited, in all cases it is allowed.
  • Rule: For pious prediction don't break the bones and if you do break them then this is not forbidden. You can cook the meat in whichever way suits you but to cook it salty is a means that the child will become with good characteristics.
  • Rule: The Aqueeqa meat can be eaten by all relatives such as mother, father, grandfather, grandmother etc.
  • Rule: The rule for the skin of the Aqueeqa is the same as for the Qurbani animal, meaning you can make use of it yourself or give it to someone or give to a Madressa or Masjid.
Dua for Aqueeqa

When slaughtering the animal for Aqueeqa, pray this Dua;

"Allahumma Haazihi aqueeqatu ibn-e-Falaa (Instead of Ibne Falaa state the your child's name if you are slaughtering the animal yourself, and if someone is performing the Aqueeqa on behalf of someone then say the child and the child's father's name) Damuhaa Be-Damihi Walah muha Bi Lahmihi Wa'azmuha Be-Azmihi Wa Jilduha Be-Jildihi Wa'Sha'ruha Be Sha'rihi Allahummaj Alha Fi'da'al Li'lbne Minannaar'e Bismillahi Allahu Akbar"

If the child is a girl then pray this Dua ;

"Allahumma Haazihi aqueeqatu Binti Falaanatan (Instead of Falaa state the name) Damuhaa Bi damihaa Walah'Muhaa Bilah'Mihaa Wa'azmuhaa Bi azmiha Wajilduha Bijildiha Washa'ruha Bisha'riha Allahummaj Alhaa Fida'al libinti (if the daughter is yours, and if it is someone else's then say Bint Falaa) Minanaaar'e Bismillali Allahu Akbar"

If you do not know this Dua then by just praying Bismillahi Allahu Akbar the Aqueeqa will be complete [Bahar-e-Shariat].

Wallaahu Ta'ala A'lama Wa'ilmahu Ahkam Wa'atam Wa Sallalaho Alaihi Wasallam"

Alhamdulillah - The translation of this book (Vol.1) was completed on the 11"' of Ramadhan 1418 al Hijri.

May Allah Subhana Wa Ta'ala with the Wasila of His most beloved Prophet Salallaho Alaihi Wasallam accept this work and reward the Isaal-e-Sawab to Hazrat Huzoor Mufti Azam Hind Mustapha Raza AI-Qadri Razvi Noori Alaihi Rahmat-o-Wa Rizwan. Ameen.

Alhaj Muhammad Salim Ghisa Qadri Razvi

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